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Birth of photography in Brazil

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  1. The invention of television or a succession of discoveries
    1. The discoveries that introduced the invention of television
    2. The birth of the term "television"
    3. From the mechanical television (1925-1931) to the electric television (1932-1945)
  2. Television in the footsteps of players like the radio
    1. The FCC and Congress: state control
    2. The networks: diffusion
    3. U.S. companies: financing
  3. Television and the American public
    1. Television proved to the Americans
    2. The placing of television sets on the market
    3. Programs
  4. Conclusion

According to Henri Cartier-Bresson, there are three types of photographers, the engineer, the thief and the coward. The first reproduces reality, the second reproduces the spontaneity of the experience and the third is always ?waiting for the moment'. When photography stormed into the Brazilian scene, technical processes limited the artistic freedom of the photographers.

Two of Thiesson's daguerreotypes that date back to the 1844 (Daguerre, the inventor of the process) are images of a native couple of a tribe called ?Botocudo' were displayed in France. These images caused high levels of fascination in France and these photographs became an instrument of anthropometric measurements. On analyzing the photographs, Serres concluded that Botocudo tribe denigrates the position of their women. It is not surprising analysis for an ethnocentric member of the French Academy.
These photographs could be considered instruments that aided progress. They served as tools for the analysis of the different ethnicities that existed in the nineteenth century in Brazil. Jose Cristiano de Freitas Junior was a Portuguese photographer was interested in all sorts of cultural events of the Africans ? as slaves and as free citizens. Through his photographs this ethnic group made their first appearance in the nation's history.

The second part of this paper deals with the "rediscovery" of a large country. i.e. Brazil

The quest for the Brazilian border:

The advent of photography in Brazil coincides with Dom Pedro II emerging to power in 1841. The emperor did not hesitate to encourage this new technique. In addition to immortalizing Dom Pedro II in photographs, this advancement in technology increased the national presence of the monarchy.

A wave of adventurers from Europe, motivated by the drive to discover the deep lands of Brazil, arrived on its shores. These adventurers took photographs of Brazil's flora and fauna, capturing a whole new angle to people's general idea of Brazil. This enabled people to rediscover Brazil without having to actually go there. The photograph became a means of mass communication, as seen by the collection of more than 40000 photos of Dom Pedro II himself.

Indeed, the photographer redefines reality with his photograph before presenting it to the consumer. The photographer is an engineer in whose work the consumer sees what he wants to see.
The creation of the carte de visite or the "visiting card? by Disdéri permanently democratized the portrait. In its third part, this paper discusses the democratization of a new form of heritage conservation:

Popularizing a national culture:
The statement of its national culture went beyond the awareness of the diversity of Brazil.
Photography affirms the national culture: Victor Frond, who was in Brazil from 1857 to 1862, published the ?Pittoresco Brazil' in France. His images depicted the landscapes and people of Brazil, thereby encouraging tourism in the country. As seen with Mark Ferrez, the intention is to market the product. Certainly, the idea behind the images play on the fine line between aesthetics and ethics. Yet it was through the works of these photographers that Brazil gained some international visibility.

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