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Effect of psychological contract forms on employee attitudes toward Affirmative Action

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  1. Introduction.
    1. Background to the study.
    2. Chapter outline.
    3. Hypotheses.
    4. Research model.
    5. Limitation of the study.
  2. Psychological contract.
    1. Introduction.
    2. Components of psychological contracts.
    3. Changes in psychological contracts.
    4. Subjectivity in psychological contracts.
    5. Transactional and relational psychological contracts.
    6. Psychological contract formation.
    7. Violation of psychological contracts.
    8. Future of psychological contracts.
  3. Affirmative Action.
    1. Introduction.
    2. Rational for Affirmative Action in SA.
    3. Affirmative Action in more depth.
    4. Affirmative Action and job dimensions.
    5. Conclusion.
  4. Affirmative action attitude.
    1. Motivational theories.
    2. Other factors influencing attitude towards Affirmative Action.
    3. Differences in attitude.
  5. mpirical research methodology.
    1. Population and sample.
    2. Data collection.
    3. Research question.
    4. Hypotheses.
    5. Data capturing.
    6. Measures.
    7. Moderator variables.
    8. Demographic variables.
  6. Results.
    1. Descriptive statistics.
    2. Attitude toward Affirmative Action and psychological contracts.
    3. Moderating effects of the moderator variables.
    4. Demographic variables.
  7. Discussion.
    1. Recommendation.
    2. Conclusion.
  8. References.

Psychological contracts are individual beliefs in reciprocal obligations between employees and employers. In a sample of 1377 South African white collar-employees, this study examined the effects of Affirmative Action on psychological contract attributes and how these changes influence employees' attitude towards Affirmative Action according to their psychological contract form (Relational, Balanced and Transactional). Using empirical research, the effects of Affirmative Action were found to be seen differently for employees with different psychological contracts. Relational employees from both designated and non-designated group were found to have a positive attitude towards Affirmative Action. Balanced designated and non-designated employees were found to have a negative attitude towards Affirmative Action.
Furthermore mentorship was seen as having an interaction effect in such a way that the relationship between relational psychological contract and positivity towards Affirmative Action is stronger when mentoring is high. Organisational Level was also found to have an interaction effect between non-manager and balanced psychological contract were non-manager have a stronger positive attitude than middle managers. Finally interaction effects of age were found in such a way that negativity towards Affirmative Action is lower when employees are older for transactional and balanced employees. The implications of these results and their possible reasons are investigated as well as recommendation for manager on how to improve employees' attitude towards Affirmative Action. Affirmative Action is one of the major issues facing companies in South Africa. Its implementation aims at changing the workforce distribution in companies and increasing diversity. By implementing Affirmative Action companies have to make changes in the manner they interact with their employees: the way they are hiring, promoting and even dealing with their staff will be transformed. In so doing, current and future employees see their psychological contracts: ?the employee's subjective belief as to their reciprocal obligations with their company? (Rousseau, 1990) with their organisation changed and influenced by Affirmative Action.

[...] Additional hypotheses seek to test the effect of moderators such as the employee level of job satisfaction, commitment, mentorship, supervision and relationships with colleague and looks at whether they strengthen, weaken or even reverse the employee attitudes toward Affirmative Action from their psychological contract forms Research Model Figure 1 shows a summary of the study as a whole and Figure 2 shows an explanatory model of the effect of Affirmative Action on the various dimensions of Psychological contract and how that links with employees attitudes toward Affirmative Action Figure Model Summary of the study Figure Model summary of Affirmative Action effect on Psychological contract linked with Attitude toward Affirmative Action 1.5 Limitation of the Study This study and especially the empirical methodology section face a number of limitations. [...]


[...] Psychological contract violation has been found to be correlated with employee engaging in counter-productive behaviour and a reduction in the employee willingness to engage in organisational citizenship behaviour (Turnley and Feldman, 2000:39) Further, on the effect of violation on transactional contract, Robinson et al (1994) established that when an employee perceives that his employer has failed to fulfil his obligation; it has a great effect on the employee's perceived obligation to his employer and it was found that an average perceived violation by the employer to the employee will lead to a decrease of three out of five employees' transactional obligation (Robinson et al, 1994:147). [...]


[...] The previous chapters discussed the effects of Affirmative Action and theorized that its effect might be different according to whether the employee is part of the designated group or not, consequently the two different group attitudes toward Affirmative Action might also differ. Subsequently it was decided to have two hypothesis groups: One for designated group employee and one for non-designated group employees. The first step is therefore to ascertain that there is a difference in attitude toward Affirmative Action between the three different types of psychological contracts. [...]

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