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An assessment of the importance of cultural diversity within global organizations

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Paul B.
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  1. Introduction
  2. Definitions of culture
    1. Cultural similarities
    2. Cultural diversities
    3. Measurement of culture
  3. What is Power distance
  4. Individualism vs collectivism
  5. Masculinity vs femininity
  6. Empirical evidence for cultural diversity
  7. Economic benefits of culture
  8. Strategic alliances vs joint ventures
  9. Conclusion
  10. Bibliography

In order to counter the arguments put forward by Palich and Gomez-Mejia regarding cultural diversity it is important to define the main issues in the debate. In order to address the issues, it is essential to begin by defining what is meant by culture in this context. On establishing what is meant by culture, (particularly in relation to business), a brief overview will then be provided on the differences between cultural similarities and cultural diversities, this will take into account the different methods used to measure culture, including Hofstede's model, finally, a review of the literature will be undertaken to ascertain if cultural diversity is beneficial in global firms.

Definitions of Culture

Culture is the acquired knowledge people use to interpret experience and generate behavior (Spradley, 1980) take from ?Social Responsibility in the Market: Fair Trade of cultural products? by (Littrell and Dickson, 1999).

[...] IMPLICATIONS: Again we see the value of cultural diversity in the area of marketing from the Yadong article the evidence seems to present the theory that Asian multinationals are much better informed of the marketing tactics of the countries they do business with than ?Western Countries', the reason according to Yadong is to do with Guanxi (social structure), it is his belief that if western multinationals were to adopt this culture style they could gain a competitive advantage over their competitors in the Chinese market. [...]


[...] "The Influence of Cultural Diversity on end-of-life-care and decisions." The American Behavioral Scientist 46.2 (2002): 204 Wood, YR, Darling, JR, Siders, M. "Consumer desire to buy and use products in international markets." International Marketing Review 16 (1999): 3 Yadong, L. "Dimensions of knowledge: Comparisons of Asian and Western MNEs in China." Asia Pacific Journal of Management 16.1 (1999): 75 Yadong, L. "Guanxi and performance of foreign invested enterprises in China: an empirical enquiry." Management International Review 37 (1997): 51 Yang, BR, Ahmadi, RH, Monroe, KB. [...]


[...] Cultural Diversities In terms of global firms, great divide' between business countries is Relationship-Focus versus Deal-Focus. On the one hand you have the Relationship-Focused, formal Monochromic Reserved natures of Japan, South Korea and Singapore and on the other, you have the Deal-Focused, Informal Monochromic and Moderately expressive USA. (Gesteland, 1999). In general, diversity covers many areas such as religion, music, arts, manners, and attitude. Measurement of culture ?Over the past thirty years there has been a substantial effort theorizing and research devoted to cultural difference, much of which has attempted to reduce the bewildering variety of its manifestations to a small set of central variables. [...]

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