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Changes in operations management and their implications

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  1. Introduction
  2. The background of operations management
    1. Manufacturing as a beginning
    2. The industrial revolution and the golden age of manufacturing
    3. The second part of the XXth Century
  3. The actual changes of operations management
    1. Security of workplace
    2. Product quality control
    3. Technological progresses
    4. Globalization and outsourcing
  4. Conclusion: A challenge for the future - Environmental issues
  5. Bibliography

Most Economy books define manufacturing as the past of Operations management. O.C Ferrell, Professor at the Colorado Sate University explains that this is due to the fact that operations management at first was only concerned with the production of physical goods. He also defines manufacturing as ?the activities and processes used in making a tangible product, also called production.? [1] with accordance to that definition, it is difficult to date the real origins of manufacturing. We could come back to the primary workshops that made items in a relatively significant number with the aim of exchanging or selling them. The role of the people in charge of the production has continuously improved with evolution. In the Roman, army for example, some people had to oversee the making of the weapons and certainly faced some problems with raw materials or with people employed for that task. But these roles in the production of goods took a greater sense with the Industrial Revolution.

[...] With the emergence of the services, the term Operations Management replaced the Manufacturing word as Operations management deals both with the production of tangible goods and intangible products that are in fact, the services. IT Progress in new technology (with the invention in 1970 of the Computer- Assisted-Design or the Computer-Assisted-Manufacturing) enabled to improve and help the production. The computer is in charge of guiding and controlling the transformation process. Since 1990, it is also possible to opt for a computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) which is a ?complete system that designs products, manages machines and materials, and controls the operations function?[6], always in the aim to enhance productivity and quality and reduce the costs. [...]


[...] The actual trend is also to care about public opinion and face ethical issues, particularly when companies outsource in developing countries where bad working conditions and child labor must be avoided. III. Conclusion: A challenge for the future: Environmental issues As a conclusion, society has moved from a national to a global focus. The goods and services world moved from standard and mass production to products that are the more possible in adequacy with its consumer. Techniques also evolved at the same time in a way of quality and safety improvement. [...]


[...] The HP Company for example uses an intern environment management system and reduced its hazardous incineration waste from 46% in 2005 to 39% in 2006.[27] Firms have just begun to evolve in a healthy way but the future is to continually improve in order to tend to entirely proper companies. Ferell and Hirt 5th edn, Business A Changing World, McGraw-Hill Smith A An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of the Nations, Liberty Fund Stroobants M Sociologie du Travail, Armand Colin The life of Henry Ford http://www.hfmgv.org/exhibits/hf/ (16 Nov. [...]

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