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10/14/2009
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documents in English
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term papers
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Steps and processes involved in advertising

  1. Introduction
  2. Marketing versus advertising
  3. The job of advertising
  4. Where does advertising objectives fall in the marketing plan
  5. Evolution of advertising
  6. Need for advertising objectives
    1. Direction
    2. Communication
    3. Planning and decision making
    4. Measurement and evaluation of results
    5. Two distinct schools of thought
  7. Sales as an advertising objective
    1. Drawback of using sales as the only objective of advertising
  8. Types of sales oriented objectives
  9. Communication objectives
    1. Cognitive stage
    2. Affective stage
    3. Behavior stage
  10. Models based on the three stages of buying behavior
    1. AIDA model
    2. Hierarchy of effects model
    3. FCB grid
    4. Communication strategies for each quadrant
    5. DAGMAR: Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results
  11. Advertising objectives in relation to product life cycle
  12. How is attitude linked to advertising?
  13. 5 M's of advertising
  14. Setting the advertising objectives

“With realistic goals for advertising, you can satisfy both, those who are investing in the advertising and those who are creating it.”

Almost every person involved with advertising wants to measure their advertising results. Those who pay the bills want to know the return on their investment, and those creating the advertising want to demonstrate that their work is effective. Research efforts on the part of advertisers, ad agencies, and the media have helped quantify the results of advertising. But most continue to face basic questions such as: Does your Advertising work? How hard does it work? What specifically does it do for your business? Should I increase, maintain, or decrease spending? What’s the best message I can put in my advertising?

There are no easy answers to these questions. Solutions are a mixture of science and art.

Failure sometimes occurs even before the process starts because companies are confused by the apparent similarity between the purpose of advertising and marketing. Both are meant to encourage consumers to purchase products and services, however, there is a fundamental difference between the two.

[...] Noise in the system: DAGMAR assumes that the awareness and liking of the brand can be achieved through advertising alone. But the underlying fact is that there are many other variables such as competitive promotion, unplanned publicity, word of mouth, simple discussion with peers, new paper articles etc all create awareness of the brand. Thus there are many other elements other than advertising in the hierarchy chain that create awareness. Inhibiting great idea: The more defined and concrete objective of the client brief, the less creative the advertisement will be, as a result, the effectiveness of the advertisement is reduced. [...]


[...] As an example of what the table says, consider trying to change the attitude of a customer who is very involved in the product and appears susceptible to rational persuasion. You should use multiple facts, expert and credible sources, scientific evidence, etc. By looking at this table you can easily see how so many companies (especially Internet companies) who try to make fun ads with lots of music are assuming they are selling a low-involvement product to people who want an emotional appeal. [...]


[...] After all these promos and activities, if the film is successful in creating interest and desire among the people, there is immediate ACTION which is seen through purchases of tickets at movie halls. HIERARCHY OF EFFECTS MODEL Hierarchy of effects Model can be explained with the help of a pyramid. First the lower level objectives such as awareness, knowledge or comprehension are accomplished. Subsequent objectives may focus on moving prospects to higher levels in the pyramid to elicit desired behavioral responses such as associating feelings with the brand, trial, or regular use etc. [...]

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