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'Development as Freedom' by Amartya Sen

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  1. Industry analysis
    1. The intensity of competitive rivalry
    2. The bargaining power of the suppliers
    3. The bargaining power of the customers
    4. The threat of the entry of new competitors
    5. The threat of substitute products or services
  2. SWOT analysis
    1. The internal analysis
    2. The external analysis
    3. The financial analysis
    4. The strategies
  3. Conclusion: Kuchen's opportunities and objectives

The book 'Development as Freedom' was written by Amartya Sen in 1999. Amartya Sen was the Nobel Prize winner for Economics in 1998. In this book, he talks about the unprecedented growth of wealth in the past century. He also brings another dimension to light, the persisting presence of endemic poverty. This endemic poverty is characterized by the 'lack of ability to live the life that people have reason to hope for'. Several theories for development have been proposed and several attempts towards development have been made in the last several decades, but to no avail.

Amartya Sen's life is marked by ideas from two spheres, due to the fact that he has Bangladeshi ancestors and grew up in India. His ancestral home was in Wari, Dhaka, which is in the present day, Bangladesh. Sen was born in Santiniketan in West Bengal in 1933. He began his studies in India, and went to one of the most prestigious universities of the West in order to complete his education. He later became one of the important figures in those universities i.e. professor at Harvard, and the director of Trinity College, Cambridge. His intial focus was on the research of the economic theory of choice, between technology and growth. He then turned his attention to two other areas: the theory of well-being, and that of collective choices.

However, it is his research on human development, poverty and famine that has been recognized worldwide. He has been more involved in these areas, having participated in designing the HDI (human development index), and also being the advisor of Human Development at UNDP. He also participated in the 'Mission of Reflection', organized by Nicholas Sarkozy in 2008, to change the instruments that measure growth in France. Sen has also studied philosophy, which included moral and political philosophy, which is what makes his vision so broad. The singular term 'Sen' is synonymous with the work he has done on developing economics.

One will be able to see, that the model proposed by Amartya Sen provides a new approach to the concept of development and is based on freedom "in the form of planned capacities of people to accomplish what they have reason to want to do." So it is not uninteresting, to give the model and the author from all its depth, exposing first the models and theories of development that are there earlier in order to understand the different meanings of development that will be either rejected or incorporated in the new model of Sen.

In agreement with the Western liberal model including American theories of development that emerged in the second half of the twentieth century based on the objectives of economic and industrial growth. This model measures the level of development of a country as the sole criterion of wealth he is capable of generating (GDP).Southern countries such as African and Asian countries are countries that have failed to get rich, they are by their definition of development of undeveloped countries, or "developing". The "Washington Consensus" refers to all the reforms recommended so as indebted poor states, that tends to impose strict budgetary discipline and therefore a reduction in public spending, export promotion and trade liberalization, in this order to take off their economic growth, ie GDP / capita.

Tags: Amartya Sen; developing economies; book ?development as freedom?; research

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