Comparison of the economic and social structures: Brazil and Chile (2006)
- Its development over the years
- It economic policy
Chile has experienced a sharp increase in its population since 1980 (11 million inhabitants in 1980, 16 million in 2004) and political stability since the end of the dictatorship of General Pinochet (1973-1997) who had established a neoliberal economic system with the help of the Chicago Boys.
However, the social dynamics rooted in everyday life is fairly low especially due to a very low rate for women (40%, the lowest rate in South-America). It is interesting to note that the majority of the Chilean population is Catholic (between 75 and 90% of the population) and, although there is no state religion, the Catholic Church has considerable influence.
Thus, Chile was the last Western democracy to legalize divorce in 2004, something which has long been a barrier to the emancipation of women as shown by the very low rates of working women (40%). The HDI in Brazil has been growing for twenty years. It was 0.645 in 1975 and proceeded to 0.792 in 2003. These figures have indicated a decline in poverty in Brazil for twenty years. For example, one will see that more and more Brazilians have access to a telephone, which is evidence of improved living conditions in this country.
Indeed, over 20 thousand inhabitants had access to telephone lines in 1975 and 85000 in 1995. Nevertheless, Brazil is in 65th place worldwide for HDI. This shows hat this country still has a long way to go before it can eradicate poverty, even if its economic growth is good. Indeed, this country is the perfect example of the fact that economic growth does not always develop a nation.
Significant inequalities exist in Brazil in the distribution of wealth.Indeed the whole population does not benefit the country's growth. The country's GDP is growing faster than GDP per capita which shows only part of the population is enriched while the other part is sinking intopoverty. Indeed, there are significant social inequalities in Brazil on top of which there are the rich landowners, politicians, business leaders who are opposed to the poor farmers do not own the land they farm. In addition, racial inequalities are a reality in Brazil. Whites dominate the economy, followed by Métis, and blacks and the Indians down. Thus,Brazilian society is divided between those who hold power and those affected.
The new impetus given by economic neo-liberal policies in Chile since 1974 led to the growth and diversification of economic activities, this combined with a highly unequal income distribution has favored the continuous expansion of the informal economy. Chile is the most mixed country in Latin America and it has not known the racial problems of its neighbors. The 2 / 3 and 3 / 4 of the population would be of mixed race. However, Chile has border disputes with Bolivia as about the Antofagasta region (Bolivia has access to the Pacific Ocean).
Brazil, Chile and more, countries are open to foreign investment, and whose foreign trade represents a significant share of GDP. Prices are set freely according to market rules, and without significant State. This brings Chile and Brazil based on the capitalist market economy. Regarding the wage relationship, Chile is moving toward greater employment flexibility. Brazil suffers from the importance of informal work, largely related to the importance of labor costs. In both countries,employment protection is relatively low. Chile is closely based on the capitalist market economy.
Tags: Brazil;; Chile; comparison; economic and social structures