Economic study of Romania
- The operations of annihilation: Actions tailored to the strategic problems of the revolutionary war
- Problems and specific features of the Red Army
- The dualism of operations of annihilation:The weakening of the enemy combined to strengthen the Red Army
- The refusal of passivity: necessary condition for the implementation of the actions of annihilation
- The role of the population for the military offensive
- The number and mobility for the success of the offensive
Romania is a country in South Eastern Europe. According to the data from 2005, its capital, Bucharest, had about 2 million inhabitants of the 22 million Romanians. In terms of area, this country is 43% of France. The country is bordered by Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro, Moldova, Bulgaria and Hungary. Romania is open to the Black Sea. This geographical advantage has not only helped the nation to develop tourism, but has also helped it to develop fishing.
This is not the only Romanian geographical advantage. The country has many mineral resources like oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, copper, lead, salt and zinc. It also has the second largest gold mine in the world. These resources are the basis of the heavy Romanian industry sector, but the operations of this sector have not been optimal.
Industrial policy can be defined as 'all measures taken by the government to guide the industry structures in productive activities in the interests of the community'. International trade can be defined as 'all trade in goods and services between nations'. The various governments in Romania have heavily influenced both the industrial sector and also international trade.
In this document, we will look at the industrial policy and foreign trade during the Ceausescu era in the first part. In the second part, we will talk about abolition of the old industrial policy, and the mixed results that have been generated by the new reforms. Finally, we will discuss the success of these reforms and the strengthening of foreign trade that has been happening since 2000.
The period from 1965 to 1989 was marked by the communist regime with the dictatorship of Nicolae Ceausescu. This takeover has had economic consequences in terms of industrial policy and international trade of the country. Its president will dictate all the rules of the economic from 1965 to 1989.
Chaired by Ceausescu, Romania embarked on a policy of industrialization, without the required energy and with low labor productivity. As a result, the country suffered the brunt of the two oil shocks of 1970.
On the one hand, the Romanian Government is based very much on the socialist model, thus the country's industrial policy is mainly based on heavy industries such as mining, basic metals and capital goods.
On the other hand, the country wants to use the development of heavy industry into the technical basis for other sectors, that is to say use the technical and scientific progress of this industry in order to modernize more quickly the country and finally ensure its independence. The development of production is experiencing a significant period of growth between 1950 and 1960.
The Romanian government decides to invest primarily in industries that are performing the steel and chemical industries but also new productions: the synthetic fibers and plastics after 1965. The engineering industries are in the early 1970s, most diversified and most important in Eastern Europe.
The budget is therefore to carry out this policy. To exploit further the sector's industrial production areas are located in major urban centers before the war (Bucharest, etc.).These centers bring together a work force quality and have the advantage of sources of raw materials nearby.
This policy of major investment in the industry is the heaviest in Europe. The industry is in a short time a dominant position in the Romanian economy. But this investment policy is to the detriment of other sectors.
Tags: Romania; economy of Romania; geography of Romania