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Africa in universalization

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  1. History of the French army
  2. Organization and composition of the French army
  3. The Army
  4. The Air Force
  5. Navy
  6. The National Gendarmerie
  7. The news of the French army
  8. Conclusion

Where was Africa in the early twenty-first century? Was it the ''disaster'' as stated by Yves Lacoste, or should we be more optimistic, like Roland Pourtier, who insists on being dynamic? It seems that the situation of the continent is not so desperate and it contains huge untapped potential. Currently, 70% of the borders in Africa have not changed since 1914!

The contrast with Europe is obvious. Moreover the entire administrative network brought by colonization remained unchanged and is a unifying factor of the territory. As for the language of the settlers, it often remains the official language. English, French and Portuguese are widespread in the continent which may facilitate insertion into the global economy.

The contrast is obvious with Europe. Moreover, the entire administrative network brought by colonization remained unchanged and is a unifying factor of the territory. As for the language of the settlers, it often remains the official language: English, French and Portuguese are widespread in the continent which may facilitate insertion into the global economy.

All this illustrates the one hand the times of colonial officials and other great learning ability and adaptability of Africans. It was during the creation of the OAU in 1963 that the young independent states decided the inviolability of borders resulting from colonialism. Nation-states today are born of colonialism.

Many criticize these borders as artificial and arbitrary. But what should it be based on? On the major pre-colonial kingdoms? They were unaware that the concept of linear frontier. The territories of ethnic homogeneity? All ethnic groups live nested inside each other and are often artificial classifications made by the settlers.

Moreover, the fact that ethnicity has often been taken into account when drawing the borders. But ethnic homogeneity is really a sign of stability? The civil war in Somalia in the late 80's was involved in the archetype of the state race. In addition, the independent states for themselves 20% of the revised boundaries. If Africa is balkanizes is therefore also the responsibility of Africans themselves.

In any case, there is no ideal boundary, even the so-called natural boundaries (rivers, mountains) are reconciling items that spatial discontinuity and human. Africans have understood the boundaries and have taken root, the time has legitimized. Few of them are still disputed today (the conflict remains Ethiopia / Eritrea).

Tags: Africa; administrative network of Africa; borders in Africa; Africa in universalization

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