East Asian Regionalism
- Market reforms create the conditions for the penetration of foreign companies
- The United Fruit Company against dictatorial regimes
- The emergence of a labor movement
- The 1929 crisis has affected the monopoly of the United Fruit Company
- Expectancy from 1944 to the coup of 1954
Regionalism is a phenomenon that has aroused a lot of interest lately. Regionalism, one of the unique features of the EU, has been the result of many bilateral and multilateral agreements in Europe. But can this concept be applied to Asia?
Scientists did plunged headlong into research as they wanted to be able to explain the high-speed economic development of the countries of East Asia. It was in this context that the World Bank report called the development of East Asia, "a miracle". East Asian regionalism, along with the formation of the East Asian Community, has been a contentious topic among political practitioners.
The core of this regionalism seems to be three nations: China, Japan and South Korea. Many theories, each one wilder than the other, with metaphorical references to wild geese, dragons, tigers etc. have been proposed to explain this development. In this document, we will study the relevance of these theories to the development process.
We will also try to find out: How can a Europe-centered phenomenon like regionalism are approached in Asia? As part of our study, we will be primarily interested in the economic aspects of regionalism. Care will be taken not to limit the study to an overview.
Instead, several analyses will be compared. Finally, we will look at the various debates that have arisen regarding this contentious topic, and how the perception towards regionalism has changed since the 90s.
In early 1990, facing the rapid development of the economies of East Asia, many attempts were made to explain this phenomenon's appearance. The most prominent of them is the report of the World Bank in 1993, which describes the experience of Asian "miracle". As a result, many studies are conducted to determine the keys to this success, with the hope of finding the ingredients of economic success in order to then apply it to other countries.
With the end of the Cold War, the world lost its bipolarity, and it is now generally divided into three large groups, sometimes also known as centers of influence or mega regions: America, focusing on United States, Europe, with the heart of the European Union and Asia remains the region most difficult to define. It is the emergence of these three areas, associated with globalization, which means that we are talking again today regionalism in Asia.
We seek a model to characterize this region, a regional model, which is no longer limited to the countries of Southeast Asia but is now extending it to the North-east and the China, or more particularly its coastal areas which include Hong Kong, Taiwan and the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) set up by Deng Xiaoping on the model of Singapore. Thus we find in the newspapers of new names such as "ASEAN plus three", the "plus three" pointing to China, South Korea and Japan.
The regional model is most often described as a replication of similar development experiences, and described by digital data such as gross domestic product (high and growing rapidly) and the high export rate common to several Asian countries.
The problem is that we neglected in many important and relevant dimensions to characterize a region, such as culture and socio-political environment. The question remains posed: Is there a model generalizable to the region of East Asia?
Tags: East Asia; regionalism; China; Japan; South Korea