A report on how an outbreak of disease can affect the tourism industry
- The four basic controls
- The loss of media and public support
- Growth of tourism as business in the UK
- The outbreak of FMD
- The nationwide effects of FMD on tourism
FMD is a viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle and sheep. It is considered one of the most infectious animal diseases spreading by direct or indirect contact with infected animals. It is not a fatal disease (most recover within two weeks) and poses no threat to human health. However, its long term effect on the animals' productivity raises primary concern for farmers already suffering severe financial losses in agriculture production.
The first case of FMD was confirmed by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) in February 2001 in Essex, south-east England. This was the first major outbreak of the disease in Britain since 1967 and was consequently ??one of the most serious economic and social crises to face rural communities in recent years? (Sharpley and Craven, 2001:527).
[...] References Anderson, I (2002a) Foot and mouth disease: Lessons to be learned inquiry: Introduction and Summary http://archive.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/fmd/fmd_report/report/SECT_2_3.PDF Anderson, I (2002b) Foot and mouth disease: Lessons to be learned inquiry: The economic impact of FMD http://archive.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/fmd/fmd_report/report/SECT_14.PDF Blake, A., Sinclair, T. & Sugiyarto, G. (2003) Quantifying the impact of Foot and Moth Disease on Tourism and the UK economy, Tourism Economics, pp 1-20 Coles, T (2003) A local reading of global disaster: Some lessons on tourism management from an Annus Horribilis in South West England, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, pp. 173-197 Department of Culture, Media and Sport ?Tourism (2001) The Hidden Giant and Foot and Mouth' report http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200001/cmselect/cmcumeds/430/4300 3.htm Dyer S. R. [...]
[...] (2003) Crisis communication and recovery for the tourism industry: Lessons for the 2001 Foot and Mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, Vol pp. 199-216 Roberts, D (2001) Rural Change and the impact of Foot and Mouth Disease, Countryside Recreation, Vol.9(3/4), pp. 4-8 Santana, G (2003) Crisis Management and Tourism: Beyond the Rhetoric, Journal of Travel and Tourism marketing, Vol. 15(4) pp.299 321 Scott, A., Christie, M. & Midmore, P. (2004) Impact of the 2001 Foot and mouth outbreak in Britain: implications for rural studies, Journal of Rural Studies, Vol pp. [...]
[...] Thus the FMD outbreak had not only a direct impact on rural areas but an indirect influence on unaffected regions through policies such as the restriction of movement. In balance, the evidence presented throughout this essay supports the idea that the ?tourism sector is one of the most susceptible and vulnerable industries to crises? (Santana, 2003). Santana (2003) and Ritchie et al (2003) both discuss the effects of crises on tourism with the latter concluding that despite this awareness of the effect crises such as FMD can have on the tourism industry, there is little evidence of adequate crisis management. [...]