Anti-dumping in developing countries
- The Anti?Dumping Policy
- Anti?dumping policies in four developing countries : India, South Africa, Brazil and China
- South Africa
- Econometric approach
In most countries of the world, trade policy regimes have moved from protectionism to more outward and liberal trade regimes in the last two decades: tariffs and quotas have been reduced. A work by M. Zanardi and M. Moore (2008) shows that adopting a declining applied tariffs increase the use of anti?dumping policy in different industrial sectors1. There is a substitution effect between trade liberalization and anti?dumping policies. (Panel B) The anti?dumping policy can be considered as another form of protection. More developing countries are using anti?dumping policies to limit imports. This protects developing countries against import competitors. The article VI of the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) allows countries to take action against dumping with different ways (charging extra import duty and to remove the injury to domestic industry in the importing country). The GATT became the World Trade Organization in 1995. The WTO Anti?Dumping Agreement established a common set of basic rules of anti?dumping that would apply to all WTO members. More than 40 countries of the World Trade Agreement (WTO) are using anti?dumping investigations and the record is held by developing countries. This paper will be focused on the anti?dumping policy in a broader context and in four developing countries, members of the World Trade Agreement (WTO), India, South Africa, Brazil and China. We have chosen the BRIC countries without Russia. The case of Russia is special; the country is not a member of the WTO but has acquired its anti?dumping law in 20062. Therefore, the data's are not present in the Global Anti?dumping Database of the World Bank, it would have been difficult to analyse initiations and measures of this country. We have chosen these four countries because first, they are large developing economies,but also because they are large users of anti?dumping policy. The remainder of the paper is divided into the following sections. Section 1 discusses the anti?dumping policy in a broader context. Section 2 discusses the anti?dumping policies in our four countries: India, South Africa, Brazil and China. Section 3 will be an econometric approach of a question on anti?dumping policy and industry protection. Section 4 includes some final remarks. Tags: Anti?dumping, industry protection, World Trade Agreement, developing countries, General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade, trade liberalization.