Development models in Latin America
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'Development model' denotes a simplified representation of a special arrangement between economic actors, political actors and civil society, to describe the main pulse of the Latin American economic history and its consequences in terms of spatial organization. The succession of models follow a ternary rhythm; an extraction of primary resources between 1880 and 1930, then comes the period of import substitution until 1980, when the new liberal and globalized model began.
It is a model inherited from the colonial period. It is accompanied by a very strong dependence vis-à-vis changes in commodity prices and leads to regional specialization.
The mine and the general areas:
Since the Spanish conquest, it is the main driver of the economy. This is not strictly speaking a "development model" since the goal is not to develop, but to exploit the colony. However, the independent states have retained this organization, hoping to bring about a factor of modernization.
Latin America was a major reservoir of precious metals for the Spanish and Portuguese. This activity is the cause of the first organization of space which set up major ports to link the colonies to the metropolis. The transit of precious metals raised all desires and developed piracy and smuggling. The needs of the mine in food, wood and other products organized economic activity in the region.
The resources of the forest:
The cycle of rubber plantation growth lasted from 1870 to World War I, when the English plantations were streamlined in Malaysia. The creation of synthetic rubber in 1940 permanently ended the cycle.
Sugar cane is the product most planted. The use of sugar was recorded early in the triangular trade. Coffee is also exploited in this way. Finally, banana and more recently the vines occupy large areas. All this leaves little room for growing food.
In line with the first globalization, Latin America is well integrated in world trade as it provides the majority of mineral and agricultural resources. In return, Europe would export its manufactured goods.
Transport infrastructure: ports and railways
Transport goods in large volume to the ports required for many railroads. The states are trying to bring out national networks. In Chile, the great North-South line was complemented by numerous east-west tracks. However, the establishment of channels was done by various private companies where the significant differences between the rates and even the width of the rails, does not facilitate the connections between different parts of the network. At the end of the network is the port city which is responsible for the Atlantic.[
The consolidation of this system is based on exporting the alliance between the state, its political elites and the oligarchy. Large farms provided few jobs, it's the city that concentrated all economic activity.
This model that enjoyed resounding triumph in 1910 came to an end. The growing economic difficulties due to changes in commodity prices and the crisis of 1929 have put an end to this system.
Tags: 'Development model', modernization, synthetic rubber