Economy of Africa
- Industry analysis
- The intensity of competitive rivalry
- The bargaining power of the suppliers
- The bargaining power of the customers
- The threat of the entry of new competitors
- The threat of substitute products or services
- SWOT analysis
- The internal analysis
- The external analysis
- The financial analysis
- The strategies
- Conclusion: Kuchen's opportunities and objectives
The study area, sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa, is a strong region of contrasts. With 800 million inhabitants and a GDP equivalent to that of the Netherlands, it accounts for 85% of the total African population (950 million), and 55% of African GDP (2600 billion). Globally, the share of SSA in world GDP is only 1.5%. It should nevertheless take a step back vis-a-vis the economy, as an object (commodity exchange, capitalism,) which must be tempered against a market that does not reach the same expansion in Africa, as in the western societies. Taboos and prohibitions, and social, moral or religious codes remain despite the rapid developments. It includes a plurality of records, standards, maintaining tensions between actors in the region, that lead to negotiations, compromises, crises and violence. Africa has, in addition to fluctuations, a long-term stagnation of productivity and has suffered severe external shock inducing instabilities. The loss of competitiveness leads to a marginalization commercialization. Africa remained a cash economy where the accumulation process has been really engaged despite the diversification of partners and a resumption of economic growth since the turn of the century.
The pre-colonial relations are characterized by a diversity of areas of influence and bills. During the mercantilist period, direct colonization of Africa remains limited, with only the installation of countertops. The triangular trade had profoundly weakened the great states of the interior, trafficked, and favored the coastal people, allies of the slave.These external relations have marked Africa, changing the spatial distribution of population, over population of an area of refuge, but also by destroying and transforming production systems.
However, it would be simplistic to try to synthesize the pre-colonial economies. Artificial environments were small and the hostile natural conditions. Exceptions (Ethiopia), Africa did not know, until the nineteenth century, the wheel, writing, or animal traction. The historical trajectories of African societies and the resulting double play of international and domestic factors. They can not be reduced to images of societies without history, ignoring the change and innovation.
After 1870, Europe divided most of Africa. Colonization "pacified",created a regulatory framework, performed the basic economic functions. It is nonetheless based on some existing institutions and can not be analyzed as a simple transposition of a foreign executive. The colonies are for metropolitan areas protected against international competition. The economy deals with foreign links, and the structures with the role of native administration. The colonial system is to drain and set aside, rather than development and accumulation. Faced with a regional market and non-existent infrastructure, the colonial state opted for self-financing. Lack of external funding, major work was carried out using methods with high labor intensity and high human cost (construction of the railway Congo-Ocean).
The colonial system is characterized in various ways. The establishment of an administration accompanying the appliance business, unable by itself to break the pre-colonial frameworks and control populations. Land tenure is set up, different in different colonies, but the appropriation of land by settlers are a minority and localized. The dominance of merchant capital is another important point, with the introduction of taxes, monetization, the obligation to export crops, in order to generalize the market economy and develop agricultural production. The colonies are reservoirs of exotic and spillways of manufactured goods.
Tags: Africa; Pre-colonial economies; colonial system; economy of Africa