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Employment in the euro area: Analysis of the job market

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  1. Introduction
  2. The glass ceiling or non-fit between business needs and aspirations of women managers
    1. The glass ceiling: a barrier to career progression of women managers
    2. The glass ceiling, a form of vertical discrimination
    3. The walls of glass, a horizontal merger
    4. Wage disparities
  3. Recognition of skills: differential treatment
    1. Skill enhancement of males
    2. A differentiated access to employment
  4. The glass ceiling: A limit to the interests of the company
    1. Women's contribution to human performance
    2. Women's contribution to business performance
    3. Women's contribution to financial performance
  5. The glass ceiling, a construction beyond the walls of the company
    1. Organizational causes of the glass ceiling
    2. The lack of sponsorship
    3. Weak networks
  6. A traditionally male culture
  7. The so-called "lack of careerism" of women
  8. Social causes of the glass ceiling
    1. The difficulty of reconciling work and family
    2. Women confined to predefined roles in society
    3. The "self-censorship" of women
  9. Towards a better management of the glass ceiling
    1. The statutory equality sought by professionals
    2. The basic legislation
    3. Incentives for companies to act
    4. The Equality Label
  10. Support the "glass ceiling" by the company
    1. Approach
    2. Different policies to promote women
    3. Action plans
    4. Childcare
    5. Universal service employment checks (CESU)
    6. Maternity and paternity
    7. The organization of working time
  11. Conclusion

The subject we have chosen focuses on employment in the euro area. We will first define what the euro area is. It is a part of the EMU; a currency area comprising sixteen countries, the first having joined on 1 January 1999, are Germany, Portugal, France, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Ireland, Finland, Belgium and Austria. Greece joined in 2001, Slovenia in 2007, Cyprus and Malta in 2008 and finally Slovakia in 2009.

Eventually, all countries within the EU would accede to the zone. Currently the area contains 322 million inhabitants. It is also important to define what we mean by employment. We wanted to introduce employment policies in a place within the euro area with job characteristics (unemployment, part-time sector, labor costs) and the various factors that determine the quotas above.

First, the article discusses the similarities and disparities within the euro area and then it shows the main consequences of the crisis in employment. Finally, it is worth asking whether harmonization in the labor market is possible.

Employment in the euro area between similarities and differences: in this section, consideration should be given the similarities and differences inherent in the member countries of the euro area. From this premise, it will be possible to see what the characteristics of the job are.

In these sub-sections, we will focus especially on convergences that exist within countries in the euro area. It is a fact; the Nordic countries are an example of employment for other countries. Indeed, last stand in this matter. They have an unemployment rate below the average of countries in the euro area. It should be based on the case of Finland as it is part of the area.

In addition to having a low unemployment rate (6.7%), it has an employment rate higher than the euro area (69.3% against 66%).Employment rates for women and seniors are also much higher, especially compared to France. It is also in the same movement as Denmark and Sweden.

The performance of these countries in employment is based on flexicurity. This principle can be summarized in three points: active employment policies; a greater flexibility in employment contracts; the generous unemployment benefits. Some authors rename these three points in "Golden Triangle". In addition, the man is at the heart of concerns, which may be a fourth factor.

As we have said, Finland has an employment rate higher than average. Moreover, it almost reached the threshold set by the Lisbon Treaty in 2007 which is 70% of the working population is of working age and employment. In terms of job quality, the Nordic countries are best placed.

So we can relate the performance of Finland in its flexibility in the labor market, but in no case this should be related to total freedom of the employer. It has an index of employment protection lower than France (hence a greater ability to make collective redundancies) and the laws are superior to collective agreements when there is a redundancy. It's not just numerical flexibility, which plays on the performance level of employment. There is also flexibility in working hours, wage flexibility and functional flexibility.

The flexibility of the labor market in Finland is offset by active employment policies that are supposed to encourage people to return to the labor market, generous unemployment compensation, which gives an impression of non-abandonment, and finally an Employment Service which is based on a highly individualized support of the unemployed.

Tags: Euro area; employment in the Euro area; European Union; labor market

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