Does the future of the French football clubs pass by the going public?
- Presentation of the sector and the company
- Introduction of L'Oréal
- Creating a company
- The core of the group L'Oreal
- Methods of evaluation
- The valuation models
- The choice of model for the company studied
- Presentation of the employee stock option
- The characteristics of the plan
- The determination of assumptions
- The evaluation process of the Employee Stock Option
Over the past years, the possibility of French clubs going public has been widely publicized. Most of these articles focus on the change of law and the procedures to enter the stock market (Liberation, September 22, 2006, The World September 19, 2006, Le Figaro, September 21, 2006, LCI 10 November 2006, Le Nouvel Observateur in September 2006, Eurosport September 22, 2006, L'Equipe September 22, 2006). Other websites have explained the stages of an IPO, such as Football 365 in September 2006 or the Echo in 2006. On the Senate site, one can also find the meeting where the president of the OL, Jean Michel Aulas, defended the rights of French clubs to go public. On the site of Edubourse, one can learn the various reasons why companies and football clubs go public.
One will also learn why companies want to go public, and what are the costs involved through this document. The letter on Vernimmen.net published on July/ August 2006 referred to the stock indexes devoted to football, by the DJ Stoxx Index and Bloomberg. Several articles discussed different examples that were permitted to be seen in Europe today. In August 2006, Le Figaro mentions the takeover of Aston Villa. The year 2006 has repeated failures encountered in England, Germany and Italy. An article in the Tribune in 2004 shows a drawing on the European chess, and why it is not worthwhile for investors to invest in football.
Football is now more than a sport: it is a social phenomenon. One just has to look at the excitement generated for example in France by the course in World Cup National Team in 1998 and 2006. Football brings together and unites people giving them a thrill. According to a study published in TNS June 2006 , football seems to be the sport that most interests the French (45%), followed by tennis (27%) and Formula 1 (21%). This has not always been so. To go back in history of the game football one has to look towards the Middle Ages to find traces of the French soule. The principle is this: two teams compete for the ball that must be put in a goal. In 1066 William the Conqueror was to be exported to England.
The name of football, spelled "foteball" appears for the first time in 1409 under the pen of King Henry IV. Football was mainly developed in universities and independent schools in England. It was in 1848 that the first rules of the game is created in 1863 as theEnglish Football Association. The first French club to emerge is the Havre Athletic Club in 1872. Football today has 242 million people , including 22 million women, 305,000 clubs in the world, with over 1.5 million teams and 720 000 arbitrators.
Today, football has become, like most sports, an economic activity. The money has entered the sport and particularly football in the twentieth century. Football clubs first division have budgets of tens of millions of euros. Another major step took shape this year: French football clubs,under certain conditions, can call on public savings.
Through this paper, there will be a discussion on this possibility for the French clubs to be in the stock market.
Tags :Football- history of the game; French football clubs; possibility of French clubs going public