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'City and Environment' of Patrick Pigeon (Nathan University, 1994)

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  1. Introduction
    1. Strategic analysis of the company Chupa Chups, in general
    2. Segmentation strategy of Chupa Chups
    3. The BCG Matrix
    4. Porter's Model
    5. Analysis of Mc KINSEY
  2. The analysis of Chupa Chups, by Strategic Business Area
    1. SWOT analysis of the SBU "Traditional"
    2. SWOT analysis of the SBU "Diet"
    3. SWOT analysis of the SBU "Fanciful"
  3. Conclusion of part 1
  4. The marketing plan
    1. Analysis and diagnosis of Chupa Chups and its environment
    2. Analysis of companies on the market Chupa Chups
    3. Analysis of variables Mix
    4. Strategies and objectives
    5. Means
  5. Action Plan
    1. .The action program
    2. Our latest recommendations and budget to devote
  6. Conclusion

The current form of urban growth, and environmental changes have brought about many new problems. But, first, we must define the urban phenomenon. Some of the questions that need to be answered in the process are: What is a city? What helps the city maintain a relationship with its environment? According to Havlick (1979), a city is the most interesting result obtained from the urbanization of contemporary forces, which drives the aggregation of people and resources, in the hope of economic, cultural and social progress.

No city is an island. Hence, a city cannot be divorced from its environment. This is true even in the case of the first cities Harappa and Mohenjodaro of the Indus Valley. Plato said that "From one end to another end of life, there always exists, a state of continuous war between states". This environment is defined by Merlin and Choay (1988) as the physical, chemical and social space, which characterizes and influences the life of a human group". For Beaujeu-Garnier (1980), the environment is the result of human action, which may be prolonged and multifaceted, and may also be close and remote, at the same time. Space is the product of the physical environment and human action. "

First, we are going to focus on how urban flows (flows of water, population, energy, commodities) affect cities: positively ( improvement of urban growth), and negatively (the effects are slow growth). From this follows natural, technological or social management, hence the importance of decisions taken by the authorities on which geographers have a say, especially when risk posed by urban growth on the environment.

It will explore how spaces are modified by the flux of urban origin: first, population migration and the movement of goods and information, as well as the impact on areas affected by these flows .

Mass migration of rural to urban areas cause two types of consequences: those related to the mass exodus to the cities and which cause a local imbalance, and those that cause the decline or even abandonment of agricultural activities .
? In the case of a rural exodus without agricultural abandonment, it was caused by the development of mechanization (uprisings in Kent, where machines were broken) and subsequently the consolidation and development of crops market-oriented cities. Parallel to mechanization, there has been a leveling of hedges, so in Britain, since the late 1940s until 1981, 150,000 km of wooded banks have disappeared in 1992, the total would reach 200,000 km.
? physical and climatic consequences of this type of rural exodus, without abandonment of pastoral deforestation has reduced water infiltration and therefore lowered the water table, and increased erosion.
? When agricultural abandonment occurred, agrarian structures had been fixed, so the land system was preserved, but it was invaded by wasteland (Jura, Pre-Alps of Haute-Provence.
? In the same case, there was a decline in market value of the forest, including Mediterranean, resulting in a lack of interest and a decrease of its operations, this led to a favorable development of vegetation fires, and since 1979, almost all municipalities in the Alpes-Maritimes have been affected by fires (Paulet, 1991). Another consequence (eg the High Llobregat, in the Catalan Pyrenees): the abandonment of agricultural land caused the clogging of drains, causing an increase in groundwater which has led to landslides.

Tags: abandonment of agricultural land, development of mechanization, rural exodus

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