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Absolute monarchy and despotism in Europe

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  1. Introduction
  2. The beginning of Nationalists drift
    1. The progressive integration of Jews
    2. The legacy of traditional Judaism
    3. Persistent prejudices
  3. The rise of antisemitism in the 1880s
    1. The Jew, 'scapegoat of modernity '
    2. Strengthening the construction of identity in race
    3. Discomfort spread by the press and the literature
  4. The violent antisemitism led to a division of corporations
    1. Of termination to the exclusion
    2. The instrumentalization of anti-Semitism by political forces
    3. Zionism, a response to the barbaric antisemitism

The term "enlightened despotism" was used for the first time by German historians of the nineteenth century, but was theorized a century earlier by the Enlightenment philosophers to describe a regime in which the monarch, informed by reason, work for the progress of his kingdom and the happiness of his subjects. From 1740 to 1790, he had a real political influence in Europe, to the point that many monarchs attempted to govern according to this ideal of the Enlightenment. It therefore seems that the Enlightenment that "lit" despots was against the principles of absolute monarchy and there would be a conflict between these two regimes. One might have forgotten the despotic character of these monarchs who will juggle the eighteenth century's liberal reforms and concentration of power. So we wonder about the connection between absolute monarchy and enlightened despotism. What is the reality behind the term antithetical to "enlightened despotism"? Can we speak of a certain "unity" of the two schemes?

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