Adaptations of the Marxism school of thought by Lenin
- The tyranny form of government
- The concept of power
- The tyrant, the sole holder of power
- Tyranny, a controversial and transient system
- A controversial system
- A transient regime
By 1895, Lenin, whose real name was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, began to approach the founders of the Russian social democratic movement which was based on the theory of Marx. Soon he became involved in the political party RSDRP (Social Democratic Labor Party Russian). In 1902, he wrote "What to do; The burning questions of our movement" in which he outlines his theory on how to conduct a revolution. In 1903 he became the head of the Bolshevik wing of the party. He saw the revolution of 1905 the beginning of a reactionary movement in Russia, and draws lessons that would enable him to carry out the revolution of October 1917, and found the first proletarian state in history.
Lenin like many theorists seeking a Russian revolution, claimed that his ideology was based on the ideas of Marx. He claimed to be the "restorer of genuine Marxism". However, it is evident that sometimes he diverges from the principles of Marx, but mostly he goes further in his ideology, stating certain subjects that Marx had hardly discussed.
Marx had expounded on the revolution made by workers in an industrialized society, but Lenin was forced to acknowledge that Russia is not an industrialized country and the ruling class is the peasantry.
It was the revolution of 1905 which raised awareness of revolutionary potential of the peasantry. The Menshevik revolution in February 1905 marked the first signs of peasant unrest. He congratulated the "revolutionary peasants" to join those fighting Czarism but against their desire to appropriate the lands of the aristocrats.
Tactically, the Revolution of 1905 was not well conducted, and the peasants did not the class consciousness that Lenin wished. Lenin stressed the need to involve farmers in the revolution: "We must keep our perspective, which is that of the proletarian class and organize the rural proletariat as we organized the urban proletariat and bring in an independent party. We have to explain to farmers that it is in their interest to fight for the socialist revolution." Lenin's new strategy for farmers is based on the assumption that agrarian revolution in Russia would facilitate the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
In July 1905, Lenin believed that the revolution of February will bring up the "aspirations of the peasantry, not the carrier of the idea of "socialization" of a new but class struggle between bourgeoisie and rural proletariat."
Considering the peasant class as deeply reactionary, Lenin merely repeated the view of Marx. The condition of the Russian peasantry encouraged him to lead the revolution because it was very different from those of other European countries: in fact the reforms of the late nineteenth century have reduced the number of peasants under financially dependent serfs of a lord. In any case, they were free to farmers. The Russian peasant felt enslaved and a climate of rebellion prevailed among the rural population.
For Lenin the peasants become interesting allies. The revolution encouraged him to advocate a large peasant uprising, he advocated an alliance between the proletariat and the peasantry as a "revolutionary democratic dictatorship of workers and peasants." Gradually, the term "proletarian" eventually qualified both the peasants and workers in general as well as all those who sell labor power to capitalists.