Are the German and Italian unification processes comparable?
- Market reforms create the conditions for the penetration of foreign companies
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- Expectancy from 1944 to the coup of 1954
It is customary to evoke the nineteenth century as the century of the birth of nations. The matter of nationalities also reached its peak in 1848, when revolutions occurred in a number of European states. However, this current that transpired across Europe is hardly a step in the process of emergence of nationalities and emancipation of peoples.
Indeed, it was after 1848 that new aspirations appeared and others perpetuated their development in order to secure the creation of a nation state, i.e., a state whose citizens are a set of people, or an entire population with an essentially national recognition as a sovereign power from among them, and expressing it. This is precisely the case of German and Italian national aspirations. The German and Italian unifications both took place in the nineteenth century almost simultaneously. Unification is an act that can bring or reduce unity.
Thus, the German unit ended with the proclamation of the Second Reich in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles on January 18, 1871. Similarly, the states of the Italian camp found themselves united by the conquest of Rome on September 20, 1870. Rome became the capital of what is now a unitary state -Italy. Everything seems to incite a comparison between these two countries that have experienced the same process at the same time, led by the army, which waged a war against the Austro-Hungarian empire. It is thus possible to ask whether the German and Italian unifications are really comparable.
The question we will try to answer is, are the processes of unification the same, or do they have a number of differences? Does the fact obey the same logic, or do they only represent accidental resemblances not justify placing them on the same plane? To answer these questions, we will study if there are any similarities in the unification of Germany and Italy. The fact remains that each country is characterized by a process of unification which is clean.
The German and Italian unifications took place almost at the same time, which is one of the first common points of comparison between the two processes. Beyond this, there are many other similarities. The early nineteenth century appeared in the eyes of two future states, as not conducive to unification.
First of all, whether in Germany or Italy, it was inconceivable to talk of states. Indeed, the morphology of these two areas resulted from the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and therefore the system set up by the Austrian Chancellor, Metternich (1773-1859). He even called Italy a mere "geographical expression." While it is clear that Italy was a space dividing the peninsula into no fewer than eight states, part of which is dominated by the Habsburgs. This division of territory was amplified by the administrative divisions and customs, made worse by the low means of communications. Indeed, in 1860, only 2500 km of railway lines existed across the peninsula. Another difficulty faced by Italians was the economic contrast that existed between the north and south of the territory.
Tags: unification of Italy, Congress of Vienna, Metternich