Assertion and decline of the Soviet model
- The Dilemma of Britain
- A real lack of interest in Europe
- An ambiguous response or 'Cordial bail'
- The need to protect Britain's global interests
- Europe against Commonwealth
- Europe against the rest of the world
- The need to channel this plan was said to be too ambitious
- Insert the plan in the League
- Too rapid?
An ideological model is a specific form of political, economic and social setup. The original birthplace of the Soviet model was the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, founded by Lenin in 1922). The USSR was the 1st experience on political, economic and social grounds from a preexisting ideological model: Marxism ("Communist Manifesto" Karl Marx, 1848). After the October 1917 Revolution, Bolshevik Russia became the No. 1 Communist experiment in history. It was only after 1945 that the Soviet model diffused to extend to a third of the world population in the early 50s. However, from 1989 the European communist regimes collapsed one after another, and in 1991, the implosion of the Soviet Union marked the death throes of the model. What was the originality of the model and how may we explain its influence and its decline?
Communist ideology has its origins in the thought of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Leninism aims to establish a new social order that would end the "exploitation of man by the man ". Marxism is a vision of society: for Marx, the industrial society is a society with a dual and unequal propertied minority, where the bourgeoisie (capitalists) dominates and exploits the majority, the working class or proletariat.
Marxism is a vision of history for Marx, with the driving force bring class struggle, the opposition, the conflict between classes that have different interests (conflict between those who own the means of production and those who own only their labor power. Marxism is a vision of society (social project): for Marx, the movement of history should lead to the overthrow of the capitalist bourgeoisie by the proletariat.
After one revolution, the people must establish the "dictatorship of the proletariat" during which power is in the hands of a party supposed to represent the proletariat (the country is now led by "the enlightened vanguard of the proletariat", the Communist Party. During this phase, all means of production and exchange must be collectivized (collectivization: suppression of private property that is handed over to the community) and the economy fully state-run (command economy). After this period must be implemented communism, that is to say, a society where the state would disappear, and social classes (egalitarian society based on the principle "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs").
Section 6 of the Constitution of 1977 (Leonid Brezhnev) claims that "the CPSU is the force that directs and guides Soviet society." It follows the one-party system. Elections are sham universal suffrage, all candidates must be from the CPSU. Any expression of a different opinion is considered "anti-Soviet" and subject to criminal penalties (internment in labor camps, the Gulag, or psychiatric hospital). The scheme relies on the doctrine of "proletarian dictatorship": the CPSU represents "the enlightened vanguard" of the proletariat and can thus exercise a dictatorship legalized by respect for the ideology. The CPSU also defines domestic politics and foreign policy of the Soviet Union. The CPSU works on the principle of democratic centralism.
Tags: proletariat, democratic centralism, CPSU, Marxism