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Byzantium : The Balkans, Europe

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  1. The Byzantine Civilization - From the Universal toward the particular
    1. The Economic Cohesion of the Christian Empire of the Romaioi
    2. The Vanishing of the Monetary Hegemony
  2. How the globalizing and Hegemonic role was taken over by Western Europe
    1. The West introduced the New, So-called ''argerial'', type of commodity money trade
    2. Religious-Conceptual and Ideological Plane
  3. The rise and fall of Great Civilizations is a complex historical process
    1. The outcome of the First World War
    2. The prevalence of the Jacobinian model of the Nation-State
    3. The formation of the European Economic Community
  4. European integration processes
    1. The specificity of former Yugoslavia
    2. The heterogeneity of the Balkan Region
  5. The political, institutional, ideological and psychological trap
    1. The Specificity of State Institutions
    2. Historical processes and objective structural differences
  6. The collapse of the communist system

As a thousand-year empire (324-1453), the universal state that was disparagingly called Byzantium by new-age historians, was the Christian and medieval continuation of the Roman Empire whose inhabitants called themselves Romaioi Romans. Christianity as the state religion and Constantinople as the capital represents the major differences between this medieval Roman Empire and the former, antique one. Its major specificity consisted in reducing Roman law, Greek culture and Christianity into an until then unknown unparalleled synthesis for the whole Mediterranean basin. With its unique legal system, faith, ideology, culture and identity, Byzantium was an unrenewable synthesis across three continents, a bringing together of the temporal and spatial quantum without parallel in history. It is especially important not to lose sight of the economic cohesion of the Christian empire of the Romaioi. It was the only continuation of the antique urban civilization and its monetary economy at a time when the subsistence economy and the primitive exchange of goods were prevalent in other parts of Europe. The stability and universality of Byzantine coinage are one of the most reliable indicators of the superiority of its civilization in a much larger area, extending over three continents and gravitating toward the Mediterranean basin as the cradle of the most advanced civilization in that period.

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