Can one compare Nazism with Communism?
- The tyranny form of government
- The concept of power
- The tyrant, the sole holder of power
- Tyranny, a controversial and transient system
- A controversial system
- A transient regime
The only truth that the totalitarian power recognizes is the one needed at the time, and the only freedom that the power recognizes, is that of expressing the "truth". It is in these very powerful words that Vaclav Havel described a characteristic of totalitarian rule in his Political Essays in 1989. According to political scientist Philippe Braud, totalitarianism is a "political situation characterized by questioning the benefit of a leader (Hitler, Stalin?) or organization ('the Party') of all legal protections, institutional or cultural, which normally provide individuals with the benchmarks and anchors necessary for their psychological security.
Thus the subject "Can we compare Nazism and communism?" raises the question of its relevance of these two regimes. In this work, we will examine what the Nazis and Stalinists have enough in common, which allows us to consider a comparison? In the first part, we detail the points of convergence between these two regimes, and in the second part, we explore the antagonism of the two systems. In the third and final part, we will develop the rallying point of those plans in light of the concept of totalitarianism which illuminates the heart of the Nazi and Stalinist system.
Historians agree that the cult of the leader is one of the criteria of totalitarianism. Moreover, evidence of their centrality, the names of charismatic leaders are often used synonymously to refer to totalitarian regimes: Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, etc.. The head of a regime of this type is presented and perceived as being at once "visionary," "infallible," "omniscient," "prophet," "extremely good", or "superman". However, a charismatic leader does not turn into a totalitarian leader with its simple qualities, even if they are unusual. "The example of Mussolini's Italian fascism illustrates how the emergence of what leadership is possible because any criticism, any pluralism have been deleted in totalitarian societies: once, when the plan states that "Mussolini is always right "(semper ragione Mussolini ha), no voice can be heard to challenge that statement.
To say that one is always right (which is a divine quality) without any challenge from already in itself a demonstration of the immense power we have. On the contrary, those who are allowed to speak in fascist society are forced to repeat (the price of speaking) that the chief in fact "always right". In totalitarian societies, public speeches always begin and conclude with a statement of submission and faith in the infallible leader. Thus is established a cult of personality, orchestrated by the Party and political leaders, who often assume delusional proportions. "
Accession to the highest office, the leader of a totalitarian regime is possible only because the site of potentially competing powers has been eliminated before. Thus, the opponents - real or potential - should be deleted and not remain as faithful menial entirely devoted to the head. Therefore, after the takeover, there was a more or less marked elimination of political rivals in Germany.
Tags: totalitarian regime, Italian fascism, Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Nazism and communism