Decolonization in India, in Asia, in Africa and in the Middle East
- The beginning of Nationalists drift
- The progressive integration of Jews
- The legacy of traditional Judaism
- Persistent prejudices
- The rise of antisemitism in the 1880s
- The Jew, 'scapegoat of modernity '
- Strengthening the construction of identity in race
- Discomfort spread by the press and the literature
- The violent antisemitism led to a division of corporations
- Of termination to the exclusion
- The instrumentalization of anti-Semitism by political forces
- Zionism, a response to the barbaric antisemitism
The appearance of the decolonization process was caused largely by a favorable international context: after the Second World War, the world seemed to be a little stronger in international relations. To be heard, the settlements were directed more to their colonizers, but the new world powers in the post-war U.S. and the USSR had already pleaded the cause of the colonies during the Yalta Conference in February 1945. It was from this moment that everything was accelerating and the UN was fast becoming a "platform" to enable anti-colonial voice. Roosevelt, President of the United States in 1947, denounced the imperialist ambitions of France and the United Kingdom which, according to them, wanted to rule the world by colonizing as many countries as possible.
Roosevelt had already agreed to a process of decolonization. In 1945, the main colonial powers such as France and the United Kingdom had colonies in Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Between 1945 and 1975, the supremacy of these countries was challenged and the process of decolonization was committed in India, Asia, Africa and the Middle East. So why and how were these countries decolonized? What difficulties have they encountered once they gained independence?
Initially, we will analyze the causes of decolonization and then in the second part, we will focus on the major phases of decolonization and, finally, we will study the emergence and problems of the Third World.
In 1947, Zhdanov in his work entitled ?On the international situation' expressed the position of the USSR vis-à-vis decolonization. The Soviets, especially the communists, wanted to "crush" the domination of the upper classes supported the countries that wanted to be independent: it also denounced the armed reprisals against the colonies when they revolted. The conflict between the communist bloc (USSR) and the capitalist bloc (U.S., UK and France) benefited the process of decolonization. Then it should be noted that the UN was resistant to colonization and, in its resolution on the right of countries to self-determination in 1952, called on all member countries to assist in the realization of this right in the colonies accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and in accordance with the will of the people to be independent.
For this, the UN member countries should participate directly in the issues relating to the population of the countries concerned with legislative and executive bodies to prepare them for independence. It is within the General Assembly of the UN that we see, between 1945 and 1975, the number of African countries, America and Asia being increasingly represented and therefore having more weight in the process of decolonization, as their political power was greater: for example, for Africa, we can see that only two or three African countries were in the UN General Assembly in 1944 against 41 in 1972: it is a sign that more and more of these countries have managed to free themselves from the chains of their own imperial masters and this organization ensures that their message will have an impact worldwide. In 1972, there were more African than European countries within the UN. It is indeed a favorable international context which allowed colonies to gain independence.
Tags: colonization, decolonization, General Assembly of the UN