Does the year 1830 constitute a rupture in the history of Europe?
- A family that is closely linked with the US authorities
- A strong commitment to the American political and economic life
- The incarnation of the "model family" in the American myth of the Kennedys
- A controversial ?clan?
- The hidden faces of the Kennedy clan
- The end of a myth?
From September 1814 to June 1815, the Congress of Vienna drew the lines of a new Europe after the revolutionary upheaval, to weaken France and to achieve a balanced compromise among the rival ambitions of the victors. The restoration of a European order based on the legitimacy of the sovereign was accompanied by a policy based on the revolutionary alliance of Throne and Altar.
Metternich, taking advantage of the reciprocal influences of the rival English and Russian groups, identified gradually a European diplomacy in the interests of the House of Austria. The system operated until 1823, but from the Congress of Verona, the divergent interests of powers over international relations condemned him to a quick demise.
If the year 1830 was thus a failure, it was primarily reflected in the political field and was the most observable, particularly with the advent of liberal and national movements in Western Europe. However, this break did not take place everywhere in Europe and did not have the same results everywhere.
Its real existence, as well as the impact of its consequences, was still very imperfect, or ambivalent, since it also balanced a number of failures that made a noticeable strengthening of the foundation of monarchical governments in Central Europe. Finally, the year 1830 was perhaps only an initial disturbance of conscious policies at the European level, but is underpinned by a real breakthrough in the realm of ideas and the arts. Romance in itself is a revolution, and both an opposition and a renewal, a desire for novelty reveals a sensibility to new generations.
It turns out to varying degrees, not simultaneously, through art, literature and music, but has periods in its development hinges: the year 1830 is a key. To assert their interests and impose their works, this new generation of artists engaged in real "battles" in which the political and social revolution became the symbol of a more general revolution of ideas.
Industrial development and the beginnings of representative regimes caused doctrines of freedom and individual activity. Nation ? States were subject to political demands even when a constitutional system was already in force.
In England radicals and liberals called for electoral reform to increase participation in political life. The Government granted it fearing the riots and foreign-domestic revolutions. German territories were under the Government rule. Liberal thinking came from a social and geographical minority group (The business of the Prussian Rhineland) who did not have political power to their ownership. Accordingly the Industrial expansion of Prussia and its evolution towards a liberal constitution should go together.
In France liberalism was an optimistic expression. The criticism of the system by some contemporary forces and economic ? development post Napoleonic reinforces the idea of liberal economists. The opposition of the Bourbons is both national and liberal. The Bourgeois called for a Government of national sovereignty, which could take the leadership of the state. Symbolism was the newspaper founded in 1830 to express these new ideas.
Tags: Vienna congress, throne altar alliance, European diplomacy, Verona congress, Prussian industrial expansion