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Emigrants in France in the 1930s

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  1. A family that is closely linked with the US authorities
    1. A strong commitment to the American political and economic life
    2. The incarnation of the "model family" in the American myth of the Kennedys
  2. A controversial ?clan?
    1. The hidden faces of the Kennedy clan
    2. The end of a myth?

This document deals with the presentation of a traitor who had immigrated to France, after World War during the 1930s. He presented an update on the situation in post-war France, and appealed to foreign immigration department. It includes the description of different sectors, nationalities, networks and also on the characteristics of the population in France in the 1920s and the social situation of the new arrivals.

War was a hecatomb for France, which has lost part of its male population during the active conflict active (10.5%). In the short term, the need for labor was quickly felt in the reconstruction of regions devastated during the four years of war (remember that the areas where the fighting took place were the most industrialized, for example, the North). The declining birthrate, already existing before the war, the phenomenon of "cohorts" posed a major problem for the growing need for companies (eg the adoption of the law of 8 hours required contractors to hire to find the same productivity). This deficit in the French working population supported the idea of using foreign labor. France already hosted foreigners, mostly Belgian, Spanish, Italians. [France also appealed to colonial and foreign workers to participate in the war effort.].

The census after the armistice in 1921, showed that nearly 1.15 million foreigners lived in France ( 1.13 million in 1911). In 1931, they were 2.9 million and the number increased dramatically especially in the 1921-1926 period. Initially, the idea of use of foreign labor was the fact of a limited sphere (industrial, business organizations, economists, chambers of commerce, or even a few politicians, as emphasized by Daniel Vincent, Minister of Labor, in 1921: "France will, in future, be a country of immigration"). This arrival of foreign labor, initially little or not organized, was taken into account by the government (the creation in 1920 of the Interministerial Commission of Immigration in charge of international treaties and control of their application, and the National Council of the workforce, providing notice of recruitment and conditions of employment of foreign labor).

Concurrently, the State has a monopoly on the recruitment of foreign labor, abandoning much of the private sector recruitment. These immigrant workers came to France as a result of an agreement or a collective or individual initiative. They are present in all areas of the French economy. We can ask ourselves what are the characteristics of this immigration wave of the twenties? In social terms, how are these foreigners perceived by the French? How do they live in French society? Can we talk about integration or consolidation of nationality between individuals of the same cultural identity?

We will try to answer in three parts. In the first part, we analyze the demographic situation of France, his need for labor with respect to the reconstruction and the call to foreign labor. In the second part, we describe the characteristics of immigration experienced during the period of twenty years. We will examine the sources of change. In the third and final part, we will study the different lifestyles of migrants and against the French.

Tags: cultural identity, Daniel Vincent, foreign labor, immigration

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