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'Apartheid' in South Africa

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  1. Introduction
  2. Analysis of the four major turning points of the Great Depression in a monetary perspective
    1. The stock market crash of October 1929
    2. The banking crises of October 1930 and March 1931
    3. September 1931: End of parity between the pound-sterling and gold in the GHG
    4. The banking panic of 1933
  3. Crises worsened by the lack of action taken by the Federal Reserve System
    1. Inadequacy of monetary policy actions and inaction of the monetary authorities
    2. Theoretical impact of appropriate monetary policy
    3. Explanations for the failure of the implementation of consistent monetary policies
  4. Conclusion

The word 'apartheid' comes from Afrikaans, which is a language derived from Dutch, spoken by Dutch settlers in Africa. This word literally means 'separation'. The concept of separation, or aparthied, appeared officially in 1948 in the laws of South Africa. The white leaders imposed racial segregation on the entire population in South Africa through these laws. This segregation was expressed mainly by separating the people with a darker skin tone (blacks) from the people with a lighter skin tone (whites). It also involved limiting the places of residence of the blacks, their workplaces, etc. In general, this was a systematic separation of the population of settlers and the people native to Africa.

This segregation was disastrous for democracy and equality in South Africa. There were only five million white people in South Africa, while there were more than 36 million people who had a darker skin tone. The whites constituted only 13% of the population, but, through apartheid, had acquired 87% of the land. This leads us to ask a few questions: How was such a segregation imposed by a minority and why? Is South Africa out of this crisis today? Through this document, we will try to analyze the history of aparthied. We will study it from its beginning to its dissolution in the middle of the twentieth century.

Apartheid was a very common phenomenon in the twentieth century, yet one can find its roots in the colonization of South Africa by various European nations. Indeed, before the arrival of Dutch settlers in the seventeenth century, South Africa was populated mostly by tribes, most of whom were nomadic: the Khoikhoi, the Hottentots, the San Bushmen, the Xhosa, the Zulus, the Nguni, the Sotho and Tswana. But the arrival of the Dutchman Jan van Riebeeck in 1652, changed everything in their way of life and gradually introduced the separation between native people and colonized people. Van Riebeeck started a colony at the Cape of Good Hope so that the Dutch could trade in South Africa.

The Dutch quickly seized by force the land and herds of neighboring tribes, eliminating many indigenous peoples; however, the Xhosa refused to submit to their power. With their wins, they considered themselves as the true South Africans and made themselves the "Afrikaner", a word derived from "Afrikaans" ("African" in Dutch). Meanwhile, they were also called the "Boers", meaning "herdsman, farmer" in Dutch.

However, the British soon turned their interest to South Africa and took possession of the Cape in 1805 to protect trade routes to India. In 1820, an English landing took place in the East Cape: they won the victory against the Xhosa and submitted the other tribes, too diverse to form a common front against the enemy. In a century, they then proceeded as masters of the whole territory, since the last Zulu rebellion took place in Bambata in 1906. Nine-tenths of South Africa were then owned by Europeans, the local tribes had to submit to the laws of the whites.

Tags: Afrikaner, Jan van Riebeeck, apartheid

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