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Berlin (1918-1991)

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  1. Introduction
  2. The UN works for peace
  3. Pacific battle and destabilization of Europe
  4. USSR and the US
  5. Conclusion

Berlin was officially founded in 1237. From the outset, the city led a double life: one in Berlin on the northeast shore of the Spree and the other on the Colln, an island in the Spree River (now the Museum Island). The union of the two cities was sealed in 1307. Thus, Berlin started its life being cut and assembled. That is why the writer Peter Schneider called it the 'Siamese city'. It was this branch which retained double time thereafter. In 1871, Berlin, the capital of Prussia, became the capital of Germany, that is to say a double penalty. Moreover, Berlin as the German capital could designate political power, which raised the question of the vision of the world when compared to the latter.

As Hauptstatdt could designate regional power, which raised the question of the vision of the rest of Germany. As a city, it represented the people. It therefore seemed interesting to study the interactions between these various elements of study, analyzing the influence of Berlin (city and the population) (policy) and conversely, between order and disorder from 1918 to 1991, distinguishing three phases.

The first, from 1918 to 1933 (with in 1933 Hitler came to power) was that of Weimar, where we see a mixed picture of Berlin; the second from 1933 to 1945 (in 1945 with the death of Hitler), was that of Hitler, where there was an instrumentalization of Berlin at the end, and the third from 1945 to 1991 (in 1991 with the collapse of communism), which was of an uncertain future, a city cut in half, a phase in which we see an objectification of Berlin.

End 1918: Spartacus revolution in Berlin (Wilhelm II fled to Holland and the power was passed on to the head of the SPD, Friedrich Ebert).
November 9: from the balcony of the castle of Hohenzollern, a symbol of royal and imperial Prussia, occupied by the rebel soldiers and sailors, Karl Liebknecht proclaimed the Socialist Republic. A few yards away in the Reichstag which served as SPD headquarters, Philipp Scheidemann (provisional government) declared a few minutes later that the Democratic Republic would prevent any seizure of power by the most radical forces. Here we see the existence of strong political division.

Subsequently, instances of disorders were increasing, Ebert wants to restore order. Yet life goes on as it can in Berlin. Mathilde Jacob (a friend of Rosa Luxemburg) says the atmosphere "in the Friedrichstrasse and Unter den Linden, it was crowded. No walkers, strollers usual but not masses of people discussing politics " This indicated the high political consciousness of the public in Berlin.

During Christmas , the mutineers took the government hostage, which was followed by a general uprising in January culminating in the murders of Liebknecht and Luxemburg on January 15. That's what built the new state, a difficult context in which Berlin is damaged.

Tags: Spartacus revolution, Philipp Scheidemann, Hohenzollern

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