The agricultural revolution vs. the industrial revolution
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The word 'revolution' may suit the industrial sector better than the agricultural sector. The idea of agricultural disruption is not the same as that of industrial disruption. Progress in the agriculture sector had been limited until 1945, but, between 1945 and 1970, this sector saw maximum growth. The agricultural revolution was characterised by new cultivation techniques and high mechanization. But when we use the term mechanization, what are we referring to?
The answer is the tools used in agricultural processes like tillers, tractors, etc. In 1945, there were only 10,000 tractors in France. Production in the agricultural sector did not depend on private ownership of the land. The agricultural land was owned by the nobles, who in turn hired peasants for labor. This system had prevailed for ages. The introduction of the cadastre, which established the individual ownership of the land changed this situation. The agricultural revolution was also ambiguous like the industrial revolution.
The modernization of agrarian structures and the increased production of wheat per hectare, which were parts of the agricultural revolution, was mixed with the growth of the industry. But, it must be stressed that the agricultural revolution did not generate the same response as the industrial revolution. The term 'Going hand in hand' implied that both the revolutions were happening simultaneously. We must try to see how both the revolutions resulted from a common process i.e. the development of capitalism. We must also analyze the extent to which the agricultural revolution impacted the industrial revolution.
The agricultural revolution facilitated the demographic revolution. This made the situation favorable for the industrial revolution. The demographic revolution had a catastrophic impact on the agricultural sector. People started migrating from the country side to the cities in search of greener pastures. As a consequence of this, the agricultural sector declined dramatically. In turn, the industrial revolution picked up speed and became more decisive.
- UK: there are, a priori, prior in the sense that the agricultural revolution is growing rapidly.
- France: the priority is not so clear as cropping patterns are quite different from those in force in the UK. The intensities of the two revolutions are similar, however, that is to say, quite low and marked by the predominance of rural areas.
- Germany: The yield per hectare is low and the agricultural revolution was late in coming, it occurred mainly between 1840 and 1880, after the industrial revolution.
- United States: the concept of agricultural revolution is hard to use as the old modes of culture were being challenged because of the pioneering nature of the American people. However, it was the double power of agriculture and industry that created American superiority in terms of economic development.
- Russia: long before the industrial revolution and agricultural revolution, it is the abolition of serfdom, which launched the Industrial Revolution. In this sense, it is the release of the agricultural sector, which allowed the growth of the industry in 1880.
- Japan: simultaneous or prior: the industrial revolution began with land reform and the end of feudalism.
Tags: cropping patterns, demographic revolution, industrial revolution