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Censorship in Portugal: its objectives and techniques

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  1. The invention of television or a succession of discoveries
    1. The discoveries that introduced the invention of television
    2. The birth of the term "television"
    3. From the mechanical television (1925-1931) to the electric television (1932-1945)
  2. Television in the footsteps of players like the radio
    1. The FCC and Congress: state control
    2. The networks: diffusion
    3. U.S. companies: financing
  3. Television and the American public
    1. Television proved to the Americans
    2. The placing of television sets on the market
    3. Programs
  4. Conclusion

Censorship in Portugal has been present since the time of the Inquisition. Even though the Constitution of 1911 enshrined (in Article 13) the right to freedom of expression, the military coup and the arrival of Salazar once again made censorship a central element of Portugal. Censorship was strengthened under the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo and remains a means by which the political police control the companies. It is interesting to observe the evolution, objectives and methods of censorship in Portugal from 1926 to 1972.

The first part of this paper will explore the objectives and the institutionalization of censorship in Portugal as well as the military coup at the end of the Estado Novo.

The military coup of Gomes da Costa on 28 May, 1926 led to the establishment of the regime of "prior censorship" (Censura Prévia).
Although the Constitution guarantees in Article 8 "freedom of expression in all its forms,? it adds that special legislation may restrict this freedom in order to "prevent a preventive or repressive perversion of public opinion in its function of social force, and preserve the moral integrity of citizens. "

The General Directorate of censorship came under the direct authority of Salazar in 1994 through the National Secretariat of Information (SNP).
Despite the arrival of Marcelho Caetano to the Presidency in 1972, the liberalization that was expected did not occur. Censorship is now called "Examen" (Exame Previo). But "Nothing has changed in this house, mind, its devotion to core values, or the line of action ()? says the Secretary General of Information and Tourism.

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