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Assess why the era of embedded liberalism (1945-1974) came to an end

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  1. Introduction.
  2. The reasons for intervention.
    1. Ideology.
    2. Opportunity.
    3. Scramble for land and spill-over effect.
  3. The forms of intervention.
    1. Containment and counterinsurgency.
    2. The putting aside of ethics.
    3. Imposing models.
  4. The Cold War is not the key to understanding war in Africa.
    1. Pan-Africanism and the non-aligned movement.
    2. The instrumentalisation of ideology.
    3. Were wars triggered by great powers?
  5. Bibliography.

One of the most important events of the 1970s was the end of the era of embedded liberalism; it brought about a change in the world order. Embedded liberalism was weakened, if not undermined, not by neo-protectionism, but by neo-liberalism (Adrian Jones 2005). Neo-liberalism entails heightened trade and financial liberalization internationally and creates competitive pressures which diminish the domestic economic autonomy of states (Adrian Jones 2005). This paper seeks to address the following question: Why did the era of embedded liberalism (1945-1974) come to an end? The aim of this study is not only to evaluate and assess the factors causing the end of embedded liberalism, but also to determine what this concept invented by Harvard's Professor John Gerard Ruggie means. It is essential to understand the main concept before it can be discussed. This paper is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the definition of the term "embedded liberalism". The second part focuses on the establishment, operation, and success of embedded liberalism before the 1970s; and the last part deals with the factors which caused the end of the embedded liberalism.

[...] Ó Riain, Sean ?States and Markets in an Era of Globalization?, Annual Review of Sociology 26: 187-213. Rhodes, Martin ?Subversive liberalism: Market integration, globalization and West European welfare states?, in Coleman, William D. and Underhill, Geoffrey, eds., Regionalism and global economic integration: Europe, Asia and the Americas, pp.99-121. London: Routledge. Ruggie, John Gerard Winning the peace America and world order in the new era: New York: Columbia University. Schild, Georg Bretton Woods and Dumbarton Oakes. New York: St. Martin's Press. [...]


[...] Conclusion Let us turn to the main question that I have treated in this paper: Why did the era of embedded liberalism (1945-1974) come to an end? As I have suggested, the main events provoking the end of the era of embedded liberalism were an economic recession in key states and key institutions; the abandonment of a fixed rate and the adoption of a floating system; the oil crisis of 1973; the Cold War and the end of imperialism; decolonization and the non-aligned movement; the New International Economic order (NIEO) and regionalism. [...]


[...] Cox, Robert Production, Power and World Power: Social Forces in the Making of History. New York: Columbia University Press. Gardner, Richard N Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy. New York, Maidenhead : McGraw-Hill. Gilpin, Robert The political economy of international relations. Oxford: Princeton University Press. Goddard, C. Roe et all International political economy: state- market relations in the changing global order. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Hogan, Michael J The Marshall Plan: America, Britain and the reconstruction of Western Europe 1947-1952. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lillich, Richard B ?Economic coercion and the New Economic Order?, in Lillich, Richard B., eds., Economic coercion and the new international economic order, pp. [...]

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