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A study on ways to forecast weather

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Mahatma...

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Nayab N.
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  1. The basis of weather changes
    1. Convention
    2. Air pressure
    3. Solar winds and flares
  2. Pattern recognition
    1. Winds
    2. Sky appearing red
    3. Rainbows
    4. Clouds
    5. Plants emitting a smell
    6. Reaction of animals
  3. Weather forecasting instruments
    1. Wind vane
    2. Anemometer
    3. Rain gauge
    4. Thermometer
    5. Hygrometer
    6. Barometer
    7. Radiosondes and dropsondes
    8. Doppler radar
    9. Satellites
  4. Modern day forecasts
    1. Administration
    2. Meteorological stations
  5. Forecasts through models
  6. Conclusion
  7. References

Weather refers to the state of atmosphere at a given place and time with respect to variables such as temperature, moisture, wind velocity and air pressure. Climate is the pattern of weather that forms and one expects at a particular place at a given time. The weather or climate of a place usually identifies as warm or cold, wet or dry, cloudy or clear, or windy.

THE BASIS OF WEATHER CHANGES
The basis of predicting the weather prediction depends on the changes brought about by various atmospheric phenomenons, and most of such changes result from the impact of the sun's energy that falls upon the earth.The suns rays warm the earth's surface from -250 degrees centigrade to -18 degree centigrade. The earth further warms to a habitable 15 degree centigrade when the greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide and methane trap a further portion of the sun's energy as it travels back to outer space after touching the earth's surface. However, the rotation and tilt of the earth impacts the quantum of suns rays that falls at a particular place at various times, and this cause differences in temperatures. This also causes circulation of ocean currents, winds and convention, all of which are integral to the earth's weather process and the basis for different climatic seasons like summer, winter, spring, and autumn.

[...] The ancient men, who did not have access to the modern-day scientific instruments resorted to observing natural phenomenon that occur with a particular type of weather, and when such phenomenon recur when the same time of weather repeats, they associated such natural patterns with the type of weather, and this came to be known as ?weather lore.? Though weather lore often fail the scientific standards established today and are not a reliable method to forecast the weather, these were the primary source of forecasting the weather as late as the 18th century, and even today many people across the underdeveloped world, especially in Africa depend on such weather lore to forecast the weather. [...]


[...] Such data record hourly in METAR (Aviation Routine Weather Reports), or every six hours in SYNOP (surface synoptic observations) reports, using standardized instrumentation calibrated according to the World Meteorological Organization standards. Forecasting through models The contemporary approach towards weather forecasting bases itself on the assumption that existing weather features may resemble features that produced certain weather conditions in the past. Lewis Fry Richardson in 1922 CE first expounded the possibility of forecasting weather by studying the previous occurrence and impacts of weather pattern. [...]


[...] The invention of telegraph and the emergence of telegraph networks by the mid eighteenth century facilitated routine transmission and exchange of such measurements among various observers, and this marked the beginning of modern weather forecasts on a global scale. Soon weather reports began to appear in newspapers, and later television on a regular basis. Wind wanes One of the earliest meteorological instruments invented was the weather vanes, used to measure the direction of the wind. The earliest recorded weather vane honored the Greek god Triton, and adorned the Tower of the Winds in Athens, built by the astronomer Andronicus in 48 B.C. [...]

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