Analytical report on the fraud at the European bottoms
- Journey to the heart of the optical fiber
- Optical memory
- Brief history
- Principle of the fiber
- Sources and detectors of light energy
- Comparison with the copper wire
- Limitations of the optical fiber
- Applications of optical fiber
- Telecommunications (Erbium and TP)
- Other applications.
The primary role of Europe is to fit into the same category as the United States, China, and India. To do this, the EU redistributed 95% of its budget, about 110 billion euros in 2005 to finance any project manager of European interest either to public or private companies or associations, schools or universities, or the local, departmental or regional community. This financial windfall was infested with fraud for diverting EU funds. Fraudsters have organized networks of individuals or entities in isolation to feed interests that come into conflict with the imperatives of competition and even control the action of the European Union (EU). Subsidiarity is a key concept of European integration: the higher level can only assume the problems that lower level is unable to solve. It is a rule of distribution of competences between the EU and its Member States. Member States focus their financial efforts on areas where their actions are effective. The European subsidy fraud takes many forms, and participates in the financing of the blackest designs, corruption, money laundering, financing of terrorist groups, and organized crimes. According to Madeleine Le Guillou, the amount of fraud accounts for 17% of the EU budget. This figure was revealed by the Court of Auditors. It is difficult to assess the amount of damages suffered by Europe in terms of fraud. That is why we find only limited information on this subject. But the EU funds fraud represents a significant percentage of the budget of the European community, and hence, careful thought on the processes is required in order to see how European and national struggles take place. This study allows observing the efforts to eradicate this scourge and analyzes if it is effective. Interestingly, the "Grant Program Fraud" of the EU budget for 2006, was subject to availability of funds. It was composed of 3,000,000 euros for 2006. Trust and mistrust are also the ruin of men. This maxim sounds the death knell of a relationship of trust between citizen and nation, between the citizen and administration, between what is done for Europe and that European institutions.