Contributions of the Treaty of Lisbon
- A potential economic and ecological importance
- A possible flexibility of the treaty for a future operation?
- Climatic upheaval with multiple outcomes
- Towards recognition of indigenous peoples
- The Arctic: a military zone that is highly strategic
The Lisbon Treaty was signed on December 13, 2007 in Lisbon between the 27 Member States of the European Union. It tends to alter the institutional framework of the Union. Formally, the Treaty of Lisbon comprises seven sections. But in reality, the text contains 152 pages, including over 350 provisions of primary law, to which 13 protocols and 59 declarations have been added. It is translated into the 23 official languages of the European Union. The new treaty, which is no longer officially a Constitution, abandoned the symbols of the Union (anthem, flag, currency) and the reference to the economic objective of "free and undistorted competition". It provides institutional advances, such as a European Council president elected for once-renewable term of two and a half years. Is the treaty really necessary and if so, why? Can the treaty be revised? What new innovations does the treaty envisage? How can it be implemented?
Article 6 of the Treaty provides that it must be ratified by each member state before coming into force. The ratification process varies from one country to another. All depend on the constitutional system of each Member State. The first country that has ratified the treaty, was Hungary. In France, the treaty was formally ratified on February 14, 2008. June 12, 2008, Ireland, the only country in a referendum on the treaty, rejected the text to 53.4%. The decision of the Irish slowed the process of ratifying the Lisbon Treaty. Most Member States have decided to use parliamentary means. Initially the entry into force was 1 January 2009. As for France, ratification of the treaty required a constitutional amendment. The Constitutional Council has detected a number of incompatibilities between the new law and the Constitution. Before France, there were four countries that have given its agreements: Hungary, Slovenia, Maltaand Romania.
Tags: the Lisbon Treaty; the need for the Lisbon Treaty; new innovations envisaged for the treaty; implementation of the treaty; ratification of the treaty