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A review on fall of communism in Europe

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Shobha s.
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  1. Introduction
  2. Kirkpatrick's belief
  3. The future of communism
  4. The real reason for the fall of communism in Eastern Europe
  5. Mikhail Gorbachev's main plan for reform
  6. Perestroika
  7. Policy of regionalism
  8. Teething problems for Gorbachev's new regimes
  9. Openness or glanost
  10. The surprise element of the revolutions of 1989
  11. Conclusion
  12. Bibliography

The year 1989 saw the demise of communism in Europe. This impacted the world politics to a great extent. Prior to 1989 there had always been much speculation concerning the future of the communist states, but it had always been misleading. Through all these predictions however, two stood out.

In Jürg Steiner's book ? European Democracies ? we are given the view of Jeane Kirkpatrick, a political scientist and former US ambassador to the United Nations. Her thoughts were that ?no real internal changes' would take place and that; the history of this century provides no grounds for expecting that radical totalitarian regimes will transform themselves.

[...] The breaking down of communism may have been a rapid process; but the rebuilding left both at home and throughout Europe is something that these countries will have to live with, in my opinion for a number of years hence. BIBLIOGRAPHY Brown, J.F., Hopes and Shadows (Duke University Press, 1994) Garton Ash, T., We The People: the revolution of 89 (Granta Books Glenny, M., The Rebirth of History (Penguin, 1990) Gowland, D et al., The European Mosaic (Longman, 1995) Kuran, T., Out Of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989', Journal of World Politics, vol (1991) Smith, G., The Post-Soviet States (Arnold Publishers, 1999) Steiner, J., European Democracies (Longman, 1995) Stokes, G., The walls came tumbling down (Oxford University Press, 1993) Steiner, J., European Democracies (Longman, 1995) p Steiner, J., European Democracies (Longman, 1995) p Steiner, J., European Democracies (Longman, [...]


[...] We will now look at the consequences that the break down of communism brought to European politics as a whole. 1994 most of the Eastern European states moved into their fifth year of revolution'[11]. As J.F Brown puts it, five years after the events of 1989, things have steadily kept moving forward; forward at least from where they were. It is strongly evident that, however quick the foundations of reformation were to set in, it would take time for Eastern European states to adjust both economically and politically to their new regimes. [...]

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