Bases of the European Union: The Treaty of Rome and the constitutional treaty European
The construction of the European Union rests on a succession of treaties and agreements which marked the European history by alternating intense and long stage of working lives of stagnation. Chronologically, one can thus enumerate: the Treaty of Rome in 1957, the Luxembourg compromise in 1966, the Single act European in 1986, the treaty of Maastricht in 1992, the treaty of Amsterdam in 1999, the treaty of Nice in 2001 and European the constitutional treaty draft presented to the Member States in 2004.
What are the reasons for the proliferation of treaties which form the basis of the European Union? Are there any coherence and a unit through its construction? If these treaties had to be set up only after wild negotiations, sometimes backed by virulent oppositions, they always more or less knew how to impose themselves.
However, the last treaty suggested to the Member States in 2004 was a failure following the refusal of the nationals of two countries of the founders of the European Union, France and the Netherlands. This document will explain the elements of such a failure, the evolution of the institutions and the construction of the European project. It will also find the answers to the failures and why the European constitutional treaty must adapt to new claims and new prospects.
The ECSC, set up community about 6 years before the Treaty of Rome already had the embryos of the current institutional triangle, i.e. a court, a parliament and an executive consisting of a High Authority and the Council of Ministers. Or following the Treaty of Rome two new communities emerging, the EEC and the EAEC (also known as Euratom).
This multiplication of communities leads to an institutional level a single meeting and a single court, but a growing number of executives (a High Authority, an EEC Commission, a Commission EAEC and three ministerial councils. This institutional functioning of the complex and diverse communities denounced first difficulty to establish a real political union. the presence of three communities involved in different sectors (chronologically steel and coal, the common market and atomic energy) corroborates this impression.
Once the treaty is envisaged the establishment of a qualified majority vote to the Council if it does not deviate from the proposals made by the Commission (but only al end of transition period that is to say 1966). Also at the outset that the commission is responsible for negotiating agreements and negotiations, these must be subsequently approved by the Council. This operation identical to the current operation reveals many partly stagnation affecting the evolution of European political union in the construction of the EU.
But in 1965, eight years after the implementation of the two communities of the Treaty of Rome and therefore the institutions described above, the Treaty of Brussels on 8 April 1965, called the merger agreement, and finally unifies the three executives.
It allows the creation of both a Council and a Single Commission but also of an administration and a single budget. This Treaty shall enter into force in 1967 setting up an institutional framework which approximates more and more of our institutional framework: a Commission, a parliamentary assembly, a cabinet and a court of law.
Tags: Basis of the European Union; proliferation of treaties; evolution of the institutions; Treaty of Rome; European constitutional treaty;