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The contemporary era of Egypt traditionally begins from Bonaparte's expedition in 1798. Resistance to French occupation allows the emergence of a powerful national movement. The country has also put an end to centuries of isolation due to the Ottoman rule.
Islamist thinkers of the expedition are the beginning of Western "cultural aggression" (French influence is pervasive in government, institutions and the Egyptian Constitution). After opening the economic, technical and social aspects of Europe in the reign of Muhammad Ali, who created the specificity of Egypt in the Ottoman world, the country became a monarchy controlled by the Ottoman Empire.
The World War exacerbated the Egyptian patriotism. In 1922, the British, who exercised a de facto occupation since 1882, unilaterally proclaimed independence of Egypt while retaining a right of intervention in internal affairs. This was followed by the experience of a liberal constitutional monarchy under the reign of Kings Fouad and Farouk, allowing Egypt to assert its autonomy. However the Second World War put an end to "the Egyptian liberal."
The end of World War I led to the development of Arab nationalism that permeates the Nasser period. The Free Officers Movement was born of the defeat of the Arab coalition against Israel in 1948. He organized the coup of July 23, 1952 and overthrew the monarchy. In 1954, Gamal Abdel Nasser became the sole head of the country, banned political parties and established a system of socialism inspired by removing the large landowners, exercising its power of the aristocracy.
Tags: Egypt; history; development of Arab nationalism;