Crisis and reform of the United Nations
The United Nations Organization was created in 1945 by the Charter of San Francisco. It is an organization with universal vocation that is par excellence. It comprises 191 Member States today. The principal goal of the Organization is to maintain international peace and safety. This mission also considers economic and social development as a part of its mission. To conclude these activities, the UNO has six principal bodies: the General meeting, the Security Council, the Secretariat, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the International Court of Justice and the Trusteeship Council.
Consequently it delivers an analysis of the crisis and reform projects which take into account the diversity of the activities and the plurality of the components of the Organization. There are some questions raised with regards to the resolution of crisis and reforms. We need to examine if they represent a crisis of the institutions or political legitimacy. The extent of the implementation of the reforms needs to be studied.
Is it a question of adapting the structures of UNO, of modifying the composition of its bodies or their competences? Should the principle founders also be changed? A thorough analysis will make it possible to show, initially, that UNO has suffered for a long time from a certain number of old structural problems, which are not symptomatic of a crisis calling into question the perennial nature of the institution, because they are the subject of a permanent and pragmatic adaptation of the Organization.
In the second part, we will examine the challenges of the contemporary economic situation and the reform projects and revolution. The structural problems of the organization can qualify the term "crisis" while old and disabling; they did not prevent the institution to fulfill its mission through continued reform. These issues relate firstly to the function (A) and the other for the operation of the UN (B).
A. For a crisis? The problem of legitimacy: The first problem behind the "crisis" of legitimacy of the UN is the problem of collective security system. During the Cold War, this system was based on the idea that a threat to peace or an aggression was against one member and it was condemned, opposed and stopped by the other, experienced malfunctions due to chronic bipolarity. Blockages of the great powers in the Security Council - by the cavalier used the veto - paralyzed the action of the organization.
Especially since the decolonization process simultaneously enabled devices conflicts. The mechanisms of sanctions under the Charter (Chapter VII) were used only in very special circumstances (Korean War due to the absence of the Soviet Union during special meetings of the Security Council) or rare consensual issues (diplomatic and economic sanctions against the white regimes of Rhodesia and South Africa).
Between 1945 and 1989, the Security Council never managed to prevent conflict. Worse, the permanent members have often violated the Charter (the United States in Vietnam and Latin America, the USSR in Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan, France in Indochina and Algeria, etc.).
Tags: United Nations Organization, Charter of San Francisco, Economic and Social Council, economic situation, legitimacy, chronic bipolarity, Korean War, diplomatic and economic sanctions