American campaigns of 1917 to 1988: the economy and the nation
- On the division of powers
- The allocation of powers by States
- The exclusive competence of the Community
- Collaboration between the EU and member states
- Skills linking the EU and EU Member States
- A more active role for national parliaments
"The American dream was originally that of access to land, free from all subjection," said Gérard Dorel in the United States, people and culture. Indeed, the vastness of American dream then attracted settlers who saw their wealth already extracted from a soil that would give them benefits. Large land laws passed by Congress organized the provision of public domain in 1785, the Land Survey Ordinance (Ordinance on the register) set up the famous grid register that still marks agricultural landscapes beyond the Pennsylvania. It subdivides the area into squares of six miles of shoreline, divided into 36 sections of 256 acres available for sale at low prices to the benefit of land speculators who are responsible for placing them before crowds of colonists eager to settle on their own land.
In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln, anxious to speed up the occupation of the prairie south of the Great Lakes pushed forward through the Congress the Homestead Act which authorized provision of free land to those who undertake to clear and settle for at least five years. "Overall, it is relatively easy access to land for all free men of America that was the key element in the history of this country. Exhausted, the settlers went a little further west, taking advantage of the opportunities offered by a government seemingly anxious to see the deal settled as quickly as possible. "says Gérard Dorel.
In the early twentieth century, the United States was by far the largest agricultural country world: they provide one fifth of world's wheat, one third of tobacco, more than fifty percent of cotton production and two thirds of world's corn. But at the same time America has been urbanized. The decades of the post-Civil War, despite the conquest of territory, are a period of decline for American farmers, who see their weight in society and the economy gradually diminish as industries grew in prominence.
Agricultural prices were falling; the explosion occurred in the 1890s with the populist movement that takes on claims of agrarian organizations such as the Grange of the 1880s.The failure of William Jennings Bryan in the presidential elections of 1896, which, supported by Democrats, and populist calls for "not crucifying mankind upon a cross of gold" marks the agrarian triumph of industrial America. The American campaigns on the eve of World War I were forced to adapt to the industrialization of a changing society, a country fast becoming a superpower.
Is agriculture one of the aspects of this rising power? Is agriculture a brake or an engine? Are farmers at the heart and foundation of society or are they excluded? How will the countryside and agriculture regain their place in an industrial landscape? What are the living conditions in rural areas and how can one develop the economy in the twentieth century? The year 1917 marked a turning point in American history since the United States first went to war alongside the Allies as they were previously adverse to any intervention in international affairs. "This role will transform their nature," said Jacques Binoche in his History of the United States.
Tags: The American dream, American campaigns of 1917 to 1988, Jacques Binoche