Anticommunism in Europe in the 20th century
- On the division of powers
- The allocation of powers by States
- The exclusive competence of the Community
- Collaboration between the EU and member states
- Skills linking the EU and EU Member States
- A more active role for national parliaments
Anti-communism is a complex concept. In the strictest sense, it is hostility to communism, which can result in a doctrine or a policy. The history of anti-communism in Europe in the twentieth century is inevitably linked to the history of communism itself. This position, was probably one of the most shared aspects by the people of Europe in the twentieth century, and is primarily a product of fear. One must therefore ask whether it is more appropriate to speak of anti-communism. The history of communism is marked by critical dates, such as the October Revolution, the Nazi-Soviet Pact or the Prague Spring.
These events were experienced simultaneously by all Europeans,and they have helped forge common responses. But the communist movements have evolved differently in each country. For example, Italy has experienced left-wing terrorism during the years of lead, which is not the case in France. Therefore, the positions are also the anti-reflection of a national character. This paper will treat this subject in three parts, considering anticommunism as a representation, and in a collective imagination. Then it will show that anticommunism is also an idea and an identity by looking at the various anticommunist movements. Finally, it will study the anti-concrete movement, shaped into policies.
Anti-communism is primarily a feeling, the result of a performance rooted in the collective imagination of the European population dating back to the mid-nineteenth century that had seen the fear of "sharing" growing. It is in the early years of the twentieth century that forged the main themes of anticommunism. From the October Revolution and the creation of the USSR in 1922, communism is most often equated with Bolshevism and Stalinism and the Soviet system. Communism was first denounced as unpatriotic. The Russian Revolution of October 1917, this "great light in the East" mentioned by Jules Romains, demanding immediate peace, meeting a very strong hostility from among the Western democracies.
Tags: Anti-communism; Europe 20th century; history of communism; anti-communist movements;