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Are the Arab countries are doomed to live under authoritarian regimes?

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  1. Introduction
  2. The Mosaic of identities
    1. Punjabi
    2. The Sindhis
    3. Mohajirs
    4. Pathan and Baluchi minorities
    5. Kashmiris
  3. The political construction of national identity
    1. The notion of national identity
    2. Pakistani Muslim identity or identities ?
    3. Language:Unifying or divisive ?
    4. Foreign policy and national identity
  4. Conclusion

Few of the experts are quick to link the permanence of authoritarianism in Islam, they believe in political pluralism. Hence Islam is more focused on political science and sociology of religious motivation. As is known, politics and religion are two lines which are connected very much in Muslim regimes. The image of Arab authoritarianism is under a strong pressure from the international community which has exerted on the paving plans, sometimes under pressure, violation of democracy.

However, it is clear that in general these countries seem to keep and sustain the immensity of their authoritarianism. Authoritarianism is anchored to such an extent that it is not possible to build a democracy in Arab countries.

Authoritarianism, authoritarian, arbitrary regime or a political power which imposes on society and citizens an ideology and the omnipotence of the state appears in the eyes of Western democracies as a feature of Arab political regimes hence the classification provided by the Economist. A ranking that may be useful in terms of Western, since this region has proven resistant to the wave of democratic transition that occurred in Latin America and Eastern Europe after the introduction of the so-called new world order came after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the Gulf War in 1991 or Saddam Hussein was expelled from Kuwait. It was hoped that this wave reaches the Arab world whose authoritarian institutions would be encouraged to become more democratic.

Despite the U.S. intervention and Western pressure to democratize the country, twenty years later the results are far from Western expectations: the Arab political regimes have managed to maintain their exclusive control over key levers of power in the hands of a small group. They have certainly made a very limited opening election while prohibiting any challenge from the social forces. As for the economic reform, it has mainly benefited the regimes and their supporters, including through privatization of the public sector. Under Western pressure, forms of democracy have been introduced ,but it gives strength to authoritarianism.

Tags: Arab countries; impossibility of democracy; immense authoritarianism; political power; arbitrary regime

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