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Bulgaria: Transition towards democracy

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Political transition.
    1. The Bulgarian Communist Party.
    2. Coalition for Bulgaria.
    3. The National Movement Simeon II.
    4. National Union Attack.
    5. United Democratic Forces.
    6. Democrats for a strong Bulgaria.
    7. Bulgarian Peoples Union.
    8. Other parties
  3. Economic transition.
    1. Economic society during communism.
    2. Transitional stage and economic society.
    3. Bulgaria, transition comes full circle, 1989-1997, by Kyril Drezov.
    4. Current economic state of Bulgaria.
  4. Separation of powers.
    1. Monarchy.
    2. Communism.
    3. Post communism.
  5. Transition in civil society.
    1. Communism, political dissent, Winter Revolution in 1997 and the period after 1997.
  6. Bureaucratic transition and minority groups.
  7. Conclusion.
  8. Resources.

Bulgaria is due for accession to the European Union in 2007. According to most international reporting mechanisms the country has reached the final stages of democracy, and is ready to proceed with accession. While on many levels, such as economically and politically, Bulgaria may have achieved democracy, on others, for instance, judicial functionality and minority discrimination, the nation has room for improvement. Because democracy cannot simply be defined along one line, be it political, economic, or any others, this research undertakes to apply the transition towards democracy in Bulgaria against the theoretical framework of democracy as defined by Linz and Stepan. This theory examines the five different spheres considered to constitute democracy, political, economic, legal, societal, and bureaucratic. In order to decide whether or not, and by what process, Bulgaria has achieved democracy, this work is divided into six parts; the Linz and Stepan model constitutes five, and the last is a special focus on treatment of minorities. Each of these parts is further divided into subchapters, which, when applicable, have been arranged chronologically, and focus on several different important historical and present periods of Bulgarian transition. In some cases, historical examinations begin during the Second World War, and progress through the communist period, into the major period of transition, 1989-1997, and conclude with the current post transitional state. In each part, as with the general conclusion, analysis will focus on whether or not democratization has been achieved within the given sphere, and by what means transition has taken place.

[...] These include the justice system, the fight against corruption, police co-operation and the fight against organized crime, money-laundering, integrated administrative control system for agriculture (IACS), transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and financial control.[2] IMF statement about the Bulgaria's economy: Bulgaria's successful transition from crisis a decade ago to steady growth has helped the country reach the doorstep of the European Union accession. A policy strategy anchored by the currency board arrangement and supported by prudent fiscal policy, strict incomes policy for state-owned enterprises, tight supervision of the banking sector, and structural reforms has resulted in average real GDP growth of percent since the last Article IV consultation in 2004. [...]


[...] In each part, as with the general conclusion, analysis will focus on whether or not democratization has been achieved within the given sphere, and by what means transition has taken place. In this detailed manner, making use of a theoretical construct, a better understanding of what stage of transition Bulgaria has reached can be achieved. Simplistic blanket statements by EU reports, such as ?democratization has been achieved in Bulgaria,? are clearly not enough to understand the complex process of transition, and it is a more in-depth comprehension of this process that this work sets out to achieve. [...]


[...] Economic Transition This chapter focuses on the development of modern economic society in Bulgaria, starting from the communist period until the present stage of the economy. First will be a short review for the economy during the communist period. Secondly, an evaluation of the economy during the transition to democracy, and thirdly, an assessment of the present, post-transition, stage of Bulgarian economy. The main aim is to evaluate whether Bulgaria is currently consolidated democracy from the point of view of economic society Economic Society During Communism The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) exerted complete economic control in Bulgaria. [...]

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