Characteristics of the Brazilian political system
- Main conflicts in Africa resulted from the fragility of states following the decolonization process and re-appropriating modes of administrations of former colonial powers
- The new states were unable to regulate the tensions inherent due to the presence of many ethnic and religious disparities
- The fragility of the state was born as a result of structural inability to exercise its sovereignty and control territory
- Resources were the coveted constants that states failed to master
- The failure of the state space opened to the presence of many destabilizing transnational actors in pursuit for interests
- Conflicts in Africa have also exacerbated by geopolitical and strategic stakes of the great powers in Africa seeking to maximize their power
- Africa was a breeding ground for indirect confrontation of the great powers
- The post-Cold War saw the emergence of new types of low intensity conflicts
The mid-80s in Brazil was marked by the restoration of democracy, particularly parliamentary elections in 1986 at the federal and state levels. At the federal level, parliamentarians met in the context of a Constituent Assembly, and after two years of debate, voted on the adoption of a constitution, that of the Fourth Republic. While the parliamentary system had been originally preferred, the Constituent Assembly finally decided in favor of the presidential system. This change is nevertheless expected in the transitional provisions that define the electorate through a plebiscite form of government and the system of governing the country. What arrangements will govern the operation of the Brazilian presidential system? And what are the limitations it will face soon?
The constitutional organization and functioning of the political and administrative system
The constitutional arrangements, although marked by the initial choice for the parliamentary system, calls for a presidency. The parliament as in any federal state is bicameral with a Chamber of Deputies, whose members, represent the people and are elected for four years by proportional representation, and a Senate whose members are elected for eight years in each state by majority vote. It holds legislative authority and constituents. Executive power is attributed to the President of the Republic assisted by state ministers; he appoints and dismisses officials.
The president is elected for four years (since 1997, the mandate has been renewable) by all voters by a majority vote in two rounds (with the second round pitting the two leading candidates of the first round). The separation of powers precludes the political responsibility of the executive and the dissolution of assemblies is nevertheless somewhat attenuated.
Tags:Brazilian presidential system, Chamber of Deputies, Separation of powers