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Democracy in Africa

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Lawrence W.
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  1. Introduction
  2. Beginning of retail trade
    1. Early trade
    2. Early market
    3. First shops
    4. Origins of retail chains
    5. From family business to retail structure
  3. History of self-service stores
  4. Origin of distance retailing
  5. Types of retail outlet
    1. Clothing and accessory store
    2. Department store
    3. Distance retailing
    4. Door-to-door retailing
  6. Types of retail chains
  7. Definition of a party and event retailing
  8. Definition of a single independent non-franchised store
  9. Definition of a street market
  10. Supermarket
    1. History
  11. Van-retailing
  12. Definitions of wholesaler, retailer, shipper and a consumer
  13. Future of retail marketing in India
  14. Facts of retail marketing in India
  15. Conclusion

In the sphere of comparative politics, and more specifically, African politics, many notable changes have taken place over the last two decades. In this time, considerable research on African politics has centered on democracy and its implementation is different African nations. It was the collapse of the Soviet Block in 1989 that ushered in a new democratic era in Africa, thus beginning Africa's democratic experiment. Fukuyama (1989:4) argued that the demise of the Cold War brought with in ?the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human development.? Since this time, local and international actors have been calling for the advent of democracy because of the value it has. It allows for the pursuit of development in conjunction with the benefit of an environment that respects civil liberties. According to Dumas (2004: 79-80), ?a fully functional democracy provides greater security in the sense of protection against widespread and arbitrary violations of civil liberties. Under such a government, individuals are freed from the insecurity that arises from having to consider the potentially severe consequences of publicly expressing their political, social and religious views.?

[...] Modern corruption in South Africa is primarily a carry-over from the past. A large number of the corruption cases that are reported in South Africa are reflections of behavioral problems inherited from old regimes. A good example of this is pension fraud, as this is one of the worst times of waste that government mismanagement is responsible for. Vast sums of money was paid out to ?ghosts', and as a result many of the other facets of government were weakened from this mismanagement of resources along with other cases of corruption in government. [...]


[...] The problem with democracy in South Africa though is that the political will to punish corruption at the high levels remains inconsistent. As of 2002, not a single member of the ANC party had been charged or convicted of corruption, despite the fact that it is widely believed corruption has been going on to some extent in these ranks. (Calland, 2006). With the South African democratic experiment, one thing has become clear, that is that democratic consolidation is a more complicated process than just setting up the framework for honest elections and the enactment of human rights. [...]


[...] One way that democracy has been affected is through the discouragement of participation in legitimate intermediate political institutions like political parties. This serves to reduce the amount of legitimate competition, and leaves the political door open to only those who engage in corrupt politics, which in turn, leaves a stain on the entire democratic system. The culture of money has ruined the democratic process. It has affected democracy in a negative way because instead of political positions going to those who are most qualified and chosen by the people, the people are being presented with choices that are based on money and influence. [...]

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