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A study of India: its history and prospects

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India along with China has been projected as a future global power. This giant population over one billion people is increasingly integrating into the world, because of the recent reforms of the economy. India, a former British colony, gained independence on 15th August 1947, having been a pioneer in the colonial dispute with famous figures such as Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru (first Prime Minister of India from independence until, 1964). India has always been integrated into the world system through colonization and trade, this helped India to overcome in the second half of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, this integration has not always been the same: these changes are mainly due to the international context, because until 1990 the policy followed by the different leaders was in line with that of Nehru.

In addition to this fact, India has always been a military power, because of its demographics but with a strategy focused on defense. This strategy therefore exerts some weight on the international geopolitical scene. This is why India is a candidate for a place of permanent membership in the Security Council of the United Nations that could definitively establish the legitimacy of its authority over the world. India, according to many specialists, will be among one of the five world powers within two decades. It is therefore legitimate to ask how a country, has succeeded in climbing the steps that will make it a world power, barely within half a century after getting out of the clasp of colonization. Thus, the opening of India has been gradual and has not been able to take the place equally in the political and economic areas. Moreover, nowadays the booming Indian economy is due to a bundle of favorable factors, even if India has to deal with different disabilities, both internal and external in order to consider a controllable future.

India is the seventh biggest country in size. The Indian Union is a federal republic (there are 25 states and 7 territories), and a member of the Commonwealth. The country's capital is New Delhi. This is the "largest democracy in the world" and the tenth largest world power. The official language is Hindi, but English informally. Since 2002, the Indian president has been Abdul Kalam, and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (since 2004).

Some significant figures:
Population: 1,048,641,000 inhabitants
Area: 3,287,260 km2
Population density: 352 inhabitants / km2

Birth rate: 2.92
Urban Population: 28.09%
Average growth rate: 7%
GDP in 2004: 661 billion
GDP per capita: $ 608
Population below poverty line: 25%
Working population: 472 million
Unemployment: 9.5%
Currency: Indian Rupee (INR), 100 INR = € 1.8

The history of modern India begins on August 15, 1947, the day of independence. Jawaharlal Nehru, a native of Kashmir, is the first Prime Minister of independent India. He leads the country towards socialism, focusing on development and economic independence. The development model was based on four main pillars:
? centrally planning to promote the industry,
? a large public sector,
? an administrative system by which the state controlled the increase and diversification of the productive capacity of private firms.

Tags: Indian economy, GDP, FDI, future global power

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