Anti-missile defense systems and policies
With the end of the Cold war, the balance of the threat was broken. Indeed, if the United States had a targeted enemy in the USSR, they are now facing a disparate threat, which is not always on a definite territory and whose power is only roughly measurable.
In reaction to this news, the United States will leave the officially agreed framework of the Cold war to adopt a new strategy of defense: the national missile defense, this paper will explain it in the first part of this study. In the second part, it will explain this new defense policy as the internal debate object and then there will be an analysis on the reaction of the international community towards this.
The Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile was signed in Moscow, on May 26, 1972 between the Soviet Union and the United States and prohibits the parties to build systems of defense against enemy missile attack (offensive) and limits the development and deployment of missiles defense.
This treaty is a product of the Cold War because it was born of the logic of confrontation between the two blocs. He somehow made the rule of the strategic relationship between the two nuclear superpowers. The principle was to ensure the vulnerability of each face of the other weapons by limiting defense systems designed to intercept them. It became possible to limit the strategic arms race while protecting the doctrine of mutually assured destruction. Global strategic stability seemed assured.
In May 2000, five-year review conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty took place in a climate of distrust and frustration. Indeed, the American project of national missile defense was criticized unanimously. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), also known as Star Wars, is a project launched in March 23, 1983 by President Ronald Reagan.
The aim was to develop a missile defense sufficiently "tight" to survive and respond to a Soviet ballistic missile attack. The long-term ambition was to create an almost perfect system for the interception to protect the whole of North America.
The idea of the space shield was launched. This initiative resulted from a part of the logic of deterrence and running the technical performance characteristics of the Cold War, and also the willingness of the United States want to stay inviolable and invincible on their soil and their areas protected. "To counter the horrible threat of Soviet missiles as an ambitious study was made to protect the United States by a space shield, identifying and destroying any missile came from the upper atmosphere.?
On the other side, the Soviet Union saw this as a very unpleasant surprise because it called into question the balance of terror, realized in 1949 when it had in turn acquired nuclear weapons. This shield would make it vulnerable because its economy can not afford to embark on a dizzying escalation of military spending.
Moscow, which was caught in Afghanistan and had seen combat in a more forceful manner by the Reagan administration, then invoked the ABM agreement in 1972 and then mobilized all the arguments available to it so that the United States abandon their program. These initiatives turned out to be futile.
Tags: America; The end of the Cold War; new strategy of defense; national missile defense; Strategic Defense Initiative; different policies; anti-missile defense systems