Areas and territorial organization in France
In France, the territorial organization was marked for a long time by the traditionally centralizing characteristics of the State. This corresponded to the ideology of Jacobin of the Republic. But from 1982, a true impulse was given to a new tendency of decentralization. This one recognized the existence of distinct communities on the legal level from the State. It allows not only more democracy at the local level but also a greater effectiveness in the management and the action of the public authorities. Thanks to the governmental voluntarism, the area is most recent of the territorial collectivity and developed in 1982.
It is hoisted with the statute of territorial collectivity as well as the communes and the departments, but it is necessary to await the constitutional revision of 2003 so that they are finally integrated into the Constitution. The area corresponds in France at the same time to a district of the administration of the State within the framework of devolution and to the most recent territorial collectivity within the framework of decentralization. France thus consists of 25 areas of territorial collectivity and 26 areas of administrative units (with Corsica).
1972: limited regional ambitions
In succession to General de Gaulle, Georges Pompidou later learned the consequences of rejection of the referendum: while it was necessary to advance in the process of regionalization by establishing a regional organization that was functional with respect to the policy. Thus the 1972 reform was essentially administrative, extending and amplifying the decrees of 1964. The 1972 Act and its implementing regulations were parts of simple regional public (EPR) that is to say by law bodies with a specialty assignment and not a general jurisdiction. The mission was entrusted by law and was to "contribute to the economic, social and cultural development of the region".
In the context of decentralization, the law of March 2, 1982 enshrines the three levels of local government law: the municipality, the county and the region.
The same law states that the regional public will be dissolved automatically and the local authorities will have a council elected by universal suffrage, which satisfies the constitutional requirement of Article 72, ?the territorial self-governing through elected councils."
However, it was not until the law of July 10, 1985 January 6, 1986, respectively fixing the electoral system and method of operation of regional authorities, before the areas became truly local authorities. Subsequently, the law of 31 December 1982 extended the decentralized departments overseas, bringing to twenty-six, the number of French regions.
The bodies of the region are the General Council, the Regional Chair, the office of the Regional Council (now a standing committee) and the Economic and Social Committee. The operating rules are practically based on those departments with the exception that the region has two rooms, the Regional Council and the Economic and Social Committee.
Tags: Decentralization, public authorities, territorial collectivity, administrative units, Regional Council and the Economic and Social Committee, General de Gaulle