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Education in the UK

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  1. School history
    1. Early developments
    2. The Butler Act
    3. The comprehensive school movement
  2. The organization of the education system
    1. The state school system
    2. The independent school sector
    3. School examinations
  3. The British workforce
    1. Composition
    2. Employment status
    3. Distribution among occupational sector
  4. Working conditions
    1. Working hours
    2. Wages
    3. Retirement
  5. Minorities at work
    1. Women on employment
    2. Employment and ethnics groups
  6. Trade Unions
    1. A short history
    2. The Trade Union Congress
    3. The main British unions
    4. The confederation of British Industry (CBI)
  7. The blurring of class restrictions
  8. The blurring of class restrictions
    1. Political rhetoric
    2. Mutation of the class structure
  9. Classification of class
    1. The ancient system
    2. The new classification
  10. History
    1. Early developments
    2. The Beveridge Report
  11. The National Health Service
    1. The creation of the NHS
    2. How it works?
    3. Reforms of the Conservative government
    4. The NHS and the New Labor
  12. Conclusion
    1. From the extended family to the nuclear family
    2. The predominance of the traditional family?

The complicated nature of the current education system has its rules in school history.

Until the end of the XIXth century, most children went to school intended church schools or private school established by rich benefactors. But such schools were largely confined to the sons of rich aristocratic and influential. On the whole, education remained the privilege of children with families wealthy enough to pay the fees and didn't need the wages of the children to survive. The majority of children received no adequate education. State involvements in education was late and the first attempt to establish a national system of state-funded elementary school came only in 1870 for England and Wales in 1872 to Scotland and only in 1923 to Northern Island.

The 1870 Elementary Education Act (Forster Act) created school boards (conseils d'éducation) in England and Wales which provided schools in the area. States Elementary schools now supply non-denominational (non professional) training and existing religious voluntary schools served denominational needs. The schools remained fee paying. In 1880, primary education became free and compulsory up to the age of 10. (12 in 1899). In 1902, the Balfour Act made local governments responsible for state education by creating Local Education Authorities (LEA).The act also gave funding to voluntary schools. Adequate secondary education remained largely the field of the independent sector. State secondary school education in the early XXth was only marginally extended to children whose parents couldn't afford school fees. Scholarships for clever poor children and some schools were created but this state help didn't greatly expand secondary education. In 1920, only 9. 2% of 13 years old children in England and Wales entered secondary schools on a non-fee-paying basis. The school system in the early XXth century was inadequate for the demands of the society. Working class and lower middle-class children lacked extensive education. Until 1944, successive governments avoided any further significant involvement.

[...] In his introduction to the 1997 Labor manifesto, Blair rejected the ancient Labor party which was strongly identified with the working class. According to him, it wasn't adapted to the modern world and his divisions were old fashioned. The Labor leader wanted to widen his political appeal and to attract all voters. Same attempts were made by the Conservative party relying on the concept of meritocraticy which says if you work hard you can succeed. This is a typical conservative argument used to go beyond social classes. [...]


[...] Many other traditional heavy industries in the UK such as ship-building (construction navale) have seen their fortunes decline. The key strength of the sector lies on aerospace, high technology and pharmaceutical industry. _The service sector is the dominant sector of the UK economy. It is seen as the engine of growth (moteur de croissance) for the national economy accounting for 66% of the GDP of people in employment work in services. II/ Working conditions The current British work force is flexible and mobile. [...]


[...] First, France is one nation whereas the UK is composed of four nations, in each of these nations, the religious landscape is different. Second, in France, church and state have been legally separated since December 1905; therefore, although Catholicism is the dominant religion in terms of memberships, it enjoys no special advantage over other religious denominations. On the contrary, there is no separation between church and state in Britain, the Church of England is the established Church, that is to say the official church in England. [...]

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