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A study on immunology

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Shaharu B.
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  1. Introduction
  2. Components of immunity
  3. Historical perspectives
  4. Theories of immunity
    1. Selective theory
    2. Instructional theory
  5. Immunoglobulins
  6. Structure and composition
  7. Secondary components
  8. Carbhohydrates moieties
  9. Ideotypes
  10. Incomplete antigen or hapten
  11. Determinants of antigenicity
  12. Cell of the immune system
  13. Experiments and results
  14. References

Immunology is a subject, which deals with immune system and immune reactions in our body. Immune system works by the principle of learning process. When a pathogen attacks for the first time, it leads to infection, but when it attacks for the second then our body's immune system recognizes and produces suitable complimentary antibodies against it. This is known as Immune Response. Immune response is possible due to the presence of immune memory. Immune memory is a part of immune system in which our immune system remembers the infection-causing organism and responds quickly when attacked by that particular organism.

Immune response can be divided into two divisions:
1) Recognition
2) Response

Our environment has millions of infectious organisms like viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa e.t.c. Our body produces certain complimentary antibody against these infectious organisms.

[...] HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES Immunology was first introduced as a branch of microbiology concerned with the study of immunity of infection. Immunology was started in 1798 with Jenner's study of vaccination against smallpox. However, as early as 1000 A.D Chinese physician Yo Meishan successfully inoculated the Emperor's grandson with dried crust of smallpox to render his immune from a serious attack of the dreadful disease. Subsequently, this practice spread to other countries. Lady Mary Wortley Montague of British ambassador to Turkey introduced it into England. [...]


[...] Antigens posses a number of small chemical groups that are called antigenic determinants or epitopes that can bind specifically to an antigen-binding site (paratopes) of the antibody molecule and T-cell receptors. A view of antigens under microscope Types of antigens in bacteria, virus, and protozoon's A. INCOMPLETE ANTIGEN OR HAPTEN: This is a chemical substance of low molecular weight that cannot induce an immune response by itself. Nevertheless, haptens can induce a response if combined with large molecules (proteins, which serves as carriers) and with the assistance from T-helper and lymphocytes. [...]


[...] The immune system is divided into two divisions:- Innate immunity Adaptive immunity Innate immunity depends on a number of barriers that are effective against a wide variety of pathogens. This non-specific form of immunity is greatly extended by adaptive immunity, which is specific for particular microorganisms for foreign molecules. The key cells in adaptive immunity are B Lymphocytes cells) and T Lymphocytes. Further, the T cells are classified into two:- Recognition Response Immune recognition is remarkably very sharp and is very specific, it means that when a particular antigen the host body affects a part takes some time to recognize and react by producing antibodies to defend the body. [...]

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