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Biological chemistry of yeast

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  1. Organic yeast
    1. The origin of organic yeast
    2. Organic yeast
    3. The average composition of natural yeast
    4. Making organic yeast
    5. Storing yeast
    6. Fermentation
    7. Dry yeast
  2. Baking
    1. Baking powder
    2. The average composition of baking powder
    3. The effect of adding baking powder into the dough
    4. The study of the acid-base reaction that results in the production of carbon dioxide
    5. Storing baking powder
    6. Uses of baking powder
  3. Experiment
    1. To study the manufacture of carbon dioxide with baking powder and natural yeast
    2. The reaction of yeast and baking powder
    3. Making cakes: An illustration of the action of baking powder
    4. The biological action of salt on yeast
  4. Conclusion

Products such as bread, beer, wine and cider depend on microscopic living cells that develop in a fungus. These are called Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A number of varieties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exist in nature and are adapted to different kinds of fermentation. Yeast is said to have originated in the times of the Egyptians. The boiled grain liquid was used by the Egyptian bakers who placed it in a cool place and used when the formation of gas bubbles turned it into a frothing liquid.

[...] The yeast must not be dissolved in a liquid component, as this will cause a release of unnecessary carbon dioxide. Cooking: The dough must not be allowed to stand for too long before cooking in order to prevent excessive reaction. III - Experiment: 1. To study the manufacture of carbon dioxide with baking powder and natural yeast: Materials needed: A glass vessel, hot water, and baking powder. Method: Pour hot water into the glass vessel and sprinkle yeast on it. [...]


[...] Yeast should never be allowed to come in direct contact with the salt Fermentation: To explain the principle of fermentation, we will study the process of fermentation of bread. It is a natural and spontaneous phenomenon that occurs when yeast is mixed with flour and water. Yeasts are micro-organisms in a single cell which proliferate when they are in contact with specific compounds such as maltose or glucose. From these nutrients, yeast synthesizes protein molecules and various other components, which then divide into two new cells identical to the first. [...]


[...] Unlike organic yeast, baking powder is not composed of micro-organisms. It is a fine white powder composed of sodium bicarbonate, tartaric acid and a neutralizing product which reacts in contact with liquids and heat, releasing carbon dioxide that makes the dough. It is therefore a mixture of alkaline and acid salts The average composition of baking powder: Baking soda: 25% Cream Pie: 60% Cornstarch: 15% The alkaline component: baking soda. In the presence of moisture and heat, the leavening agent causes a release of carbon dioxide which lifts the dough. [...]

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